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Crustal foundering on surface Halema'uma'u crater lava lake

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Detailed Description

This video, taken with a telephoto lens from an observation location on the rim, shows a process called “foundering”, in which a segment of cool lava crust on the surface of the lava lake is overridden by less-dense liquid from below causing the crust to sink into the underlying lake lava. Density-driven crustal foundering leading to surface renewal occurs repeatedly throughout the life of a lava lake.

  • Clip 1 show the process during daytime hours. The video is shown at 20x speed. Clip 2 shows the process at night. The video is shown at 10x speed.
  • Clip 1 taken December 31, 2020 by M. Patrick.
  • Clip 2 taken December 29, 2020 by B. Carr.




Public Domain.