The Volcano Disaster Assistance Program in 2021

Video Transcript
Download Video
Right-click and save to download

Detailed Description

The Volcano Disaster Assistance Program (VDAP) is a team of USGS scientists funded by USAID and the USGS Volcano Hazards Program to help volcano observatories around the world. Catalyzed by the 1985 Nevado del Ruiz catastrophe, the USGS and USAID developed VDAP as a dedicated team of volcano scientists with a cache of instrumentation ready to respond to volcanic crises (at the request of foreign governments) before they became disasters. The program also devotes significant time and resources to long-term capacity building and training, assisting observatories in the development of monitoring networks. VDAP also provides situational awareness for U.S. government agencies and embassies. The expertise, techniques, and instruments developed at active volcanoes around the globe have direct application for the USGS domestic volcano monitoring program. In this recorded talk from March 18, 2021, VDAP staff provide an overview of the program and their work to USGS colleagues in the Volcano Science Center.


Date Taken:

Length: 00:43:48

Location Taken: Vancouver, WA, US


The Volcano Disaster Assistance Program, or VDAP,

is a team of USGS scientists funded by USAID and the

USGS Volcano Hazards Program to help volcano observatories around the world.

In this talk from March 18th, 2021,

VDAP staff provide an overview of their work to

their USGS colleagues in the Volcano Science Center.

Seventeen speakers will describe VDAP's history, staff and operations.

The map you see on the screen show places where VDAP has

responded in the field to unrest over the past 35 years.

But as you'll learn, we do a lot more than volcano response these days.

John Ewert will start by introducing us to VDAP's history.

Hi everybody, this is John Ewert.

I'm one of the founding members of VDAP with Andy Lockhart and Jeff Marso.

The origin of VDAP was catalyzed by the Nevado del Ruiz catastrophe of 1985.

In the five years before that eruption,

the stage had been set for VDAP by

scientific and technical advances being undertaken at Mount St. Helens,

by experiences gained by the USGS and Indonesia beginning in 1982 and through

several other USGS and UN proposals to

create similar proactive response capabilities for volcano crises.

In the wake of the Ruiz catastrophe,

a proposal for a co-operative USGS,

USAID, VDAP program was submitted to AID.

This proposal essentially made a business case wherein a dedicated team and cache of

instrumentation would be prepared to respond to

unrest crises before they became disasters.

This we believed (we still do) would be more

cost-effective than reactive disaster response.

Our initial focus was in Latin America.

Now the Pinatubo story from 30 years ago now is pretty well

known through publication of Fire and Mud, a NOVA program,

several memoirs and many other scholarly works.

But the upshot for the VDAP program,

was five years after its founding on a shoestring budget,

the VDAP concept was validated.

A dedicated team of USGS,

volcanologists, and local counterparts,

in this case, PHIVOLCS,

worked on a large reawakening volcano with a transportable volcano observatory,

and were able to evacuate tens of thousands of people and hundreds of millions of

dollars of property out of harm's way before the VEI 6 eruption on June 15th, 1991.

In its early years, VDAP was primarily focused on response to unrest and eruptions.

But over time, VDAP's mission has evolved to include

more capacity-building activities at volcano observatories through trainings,

workshops, infrastructure building and scientific collaboration,

which will be described now by our other VDAP team members. Thank you.

Rewinding a little bit, as John mentioned, in 1986,

the USAID Office of Foreign Disaster Assistance and USGS joined forces to create VDAP.

To simplify it, this made sense because USGS obviously has

the expertise to help with volcano risk reduction around the world,

and the Office of Foreign Disaster Assistance,

has the mandate to respond to disasters internationally.

For about 35 years this relationship has continued.

One of the more recent developments is in June, OFDA,

which leads the US government's response to

disasters and provides humanitarian assistance for everything except for food,

merged with USAID's Office for Food for Peace,

which provides food after disasters, to create the Bureau for Humanitarian Assistance,

to have one holistic bureau that deals with disaster response.

What was OFDA is now called the Bureau for Humanitarian Assistance or BHA.

BHA funds about half of the staff salary and all of the OE for VDAP staff.

The costs are shared with the USGS,

which covers about half of the salary.

BHA is quite involved in the work that we do in oversight.

Sorry, I can't see around that.

VDAP renews our agreement with USAID every five years.

Every year, we provide a yearly work plan that

provides details about the work that we plan to do and the budget.

While VDAP's budget from BHA,

which is about $4 to $5 million per year is

a small fraction of BHA's overall $7 billion budget,

we do have to compete for those funds.

Since BHA responds to any type of disasters, that would include Afghanistan,

Syria, or even COVID,

and so some advocating for VDAP is necessary.

That's one of my roles as the USGS liaison who in

normal times sits at USAID headquarters and represents VDAP in addition to

providing guidance about geoscience issues

internationally and leading BHA's natural hazards team. Thank you.

Back to me. We divide our work into two major bins,

response and capacity building.

These days, and especially during COVID,

our response activities revolved more and more around remote response,

where we send equipment, set

interpret satellite images, and provide consultations to our partners.

Probably 75% of what we do is long-term capacity building and training.

There's some core philosophies and guidelines that remain over the years.

This list was put together by former VDAP Chief John Pallister,

and it reflects how we've developed in recent years.

We know that many, if not most,

volcanic eruptions can be forecast,

but it takes really good communications for lives to be saved and disasters prevented.

There are other groups out there that help foreign volcano observatories,

but very few of them have the ability to give away equipment.

That's because most of them are research institutions like the USGS

that have legal requirements for inventories and property lists and that sort of stuff.

But VDAP, because of its relationship with USAID can give things away.

We operate in the background.

Our focus is on supporting our partners.

We don't talk to the press or to government officials outside

our partner institutions unless it's specifically requested.

Our job is to support.

We provide situational awareness as well for

the US government agencies and we're available to USAID and the embassies at all times.

Finally, the work we do has direct applications for our domestic program,

including technique and instrument development.

Our work is generally noncontroversial.

It's good publicity for the USGS,

USAID, and the US itself.

To fulfill our work plan for USAID,

we have a staff of about 23 full to part-time staff,

and we also pay for pay periods for lots of other people.

We have four of us to manage the work and budget and fulfill

fairly rigorous metrics and evaluations imposed by USAID that you'll hear about later.

We have sections for geology,

remote sensing and photogrammetry,

geophysics and engineering, as well as a full-time computer scientist,

and we share geochemist with the VSC.

The section leaders are highlighted in red.

Most of our staff is at CVO,

but we do have staff also at CalVO,

AVO, and in Reston and DC.

We've heard from Jake and others that we have the annual work plans,

we have five-year work plans,

but how do we decide what we're to include in them?

To know how to help a country,

we have to know what's important for them, what's important to do.

One major way we do this is by cooperatively creating threat assessments and

gap analyses TAGAs for each country and incorporating the results in our planning process.

The method we use is the same one

that was developed in the US for the NVEWS proposals.

You can see the initial reference on this slide if you're interested in looking at that.

Once the TAGA has finished,

we then assist in developing

long-term implementation plans that

emphasize the high threat volcanoes to help guide project planning.

TAGAs are required for our aid,

but are also useful to help our partners focus

their scarce resources on the highest priority targets,

as well as to guide projects from

other international donor agencies and for

internal funding proposals within their own government.

All right. Howdy folks.

My name is Andy Lockhart.

I'm the head of the engineering section,

which includes Aaron Rinehart and Rowdy LaFevers.

Now the TAGA analysis that Jeff mentioned also helps us

determine what equipment and technical assistance

to provide when there's a crisis somewhere.

I'm going to mention our equipment cache and donations.

The cache consists of telemetered seismic,

infrasound, GPS, and gas instrumentation.

You're going to hear about the gas instrumentation later,

and other things like webcams and rain gauges.

It's mostly standard VSC equipment and techniques, which we adapt to local conditions.

Now, in an on-site response,

we will bring their equipment and assist with its installation and its use.

Otherwise, we'll ship it along with manuals and

then keep in touch to make sure it's installed all right.

We keep enough equipment on hand for two simultaneous responses.

We donate a lot of it.

We do a remote crisis response once or twice a year.

We do an on-site crisis response with technical assistance every year or two,

and we ship equipment down about every month.

Now in 2020, we donated between $175,000 and

$200,000 worth of gear in 12 shipments to six countries,

which included three remote crisis responses.

One to Sangay, Ecuador,

and the other two Purupuruni Peru and into Saint Vincent in the Caribbean.

So now Rowdy will talk some about our engineering projects and capacity building.

Our partner countries' engineering needs are highly variable.

So our work is tailored to meet those monitoring needs,

skill sets, and the environment they work in.

Some countries need supplies of sensors and infrastructure equipment.

Some need us to install and train in the operation of the equipment.

Others buy their own sensors and need our assistance with network planning,

sensor installation, and environmental protection techniques.

Over time, we've moved away from designing and fabricating

our own sensors and custom installation and hardware.

Instead, now we purchased and encourage use of

off-the-shelf devices that have been developed for

industrial applications and are vendor-supported.

VDAP engineering provides experience from the VSC and

world volcano monitoring community in the application

and appropriate use of sensors and equipment in volcanic environments.

Our experience spans a time range of analog seismic sensors

and telemetry to modern digital methods with a wide range of sensor types.

We assist our partners in their stage of evolution of

monitoring methods and work within their constraints towards sustainable modernization.

The scale of work with our partners ranges from supply and

installation of a single monitoring station such as adding

a scanning DOAS to an existing volcano monitoring

network to the supply of a complete volcano monitoring network of sensors,

installation infrastructure, radio telemetry,

and observatory-based real-time data acquisition and processing systems.

Of late working with AVO,

CVO, and the VSC,

we have been assisting our partners with

infrasound deployments as well as installing equipment to better detect lahars.

We're using the world community of experience

with destruction of equipment due to lightning and

electrical transients to design systems more resilient to these problems,

so common in tropical marine environments where we work.

Ongoing development of state-of-health monitoring for

remote devices is assisting in these tasks. Thanks.

In the seismology group,

most of our work falls under one of three themes shown here.

The first one being analysis and interpretation

of new or ongoing seismic unrest around the world.

The second one being training and technology transfer,

and the third one being scientific collaborations and exchanges with our partners.

I'm just going to mention a little bit about each one of these. 

Much of our work involves analysis and interpretation of new or ongoing seismic unrest.

This ranges from consultation on specific seismic sequences on one end of the spectrum to

collaborative development of conceptual models that try to explain

long-term seismicity patterns on the other end of the spectrum.

More and more we're turning to

quantitative analyses of global volcano data to help in our interpretations.

Recently, we've been focusing on using earthquake catalogs statistics to try to answer

the common question of whether new seismicity near a volcano is magmatic or tectonic.

Two ways we'd been doing this are,

one by directly searching the Global Earthquake Data for

analogous seismic sequences like we did for this sequence

of shallow Magnitude 6 events near

Rinjani Volcano in 2018 and in other places as well.

Also by just looking for a broad statistical difference

between pre- and syn-eruptive swarms versus non-eruptive swarms.

Under the theme of trainings and technology transfer,

we continue to focus on improving

the monitoring and analysis capabilities of our partners.

Many of these activities depend heavily on our colleagues in the VSC.

For example, we've been exporting the alarm and

infrasound software developed at AVO to many of our partners.

John Lyons and Aaron Wech had been heavily involved in that effort.

Another example is the REDPy software that's developed and

maintained by Alicia Hotovec-Ellis at CalVO.

So far we've trained partners at five different observatories on the use of

this software for real-time monitoring at their volcanoes.

Finally, an increasing focus

for us has been facilitating scientific collaborations and exchanges.

Two recent examples of those are shown here in

Indonesia on the left and in Colombia on the right,

with some other recent and upcoming examples listed as well. Thanks.

Hey. Hi, everyone. I'm Wendy McCausland,

and I started with VDAP as an operational seismologist back in 2008.

Currently, I'm in a research position.

The first part of that job is science diplomacy.

I assist our foreign partners with writing journal articles that document

precursory and syn-eruptive seismicity for their eruptions,

and I help with the development, execution,

and publication of their research projects.

For example, I was lead editor for a JVGR

special issue on Sinabung and Kelud volcanoes.

For that, seven of the 20 papers were first-authored by Indonesians.

They were co-authors on 14 more. Next slide.

My research supports the operational activities of VDAP and

leverages my experience while I was an operational seismologist.

That includes seeing more than 125 episodes of

unrest or eruption at more than 50 volcanoes worldwide.

I'm interested in using that seismicity to forecast volcano eruptions

through integrative studies of precursory and syn-eruptive seismicity,

and by recognizing important precursory patterns across

volcanic systems of different sizes, composition, and explosivity.

Next slide. I'm also interested in linking seismicity to the ongoing geologic,

geodetic, and geochemical processes

during magma ascent from the lower crust to the surface.

And, how can we use that to apply that pattern

and the seismicity, to the volcanoes where we have no instrumental history?

For example, Chaiten in Chile or Sinabung in Indonesia,

or volcanoes whose current precursors are different from previous eruptions.

So that would be Mount St. Helens in 2004 or Merapi in 2010. Thank you.

The work of the geodesy program is based on four major tasks.

One is training our colleagues in the use of processing GPS.

So in the use of software to process GPS or to model GPS data,

gravity monitoring, and modeling of inSAR data.

We also provide support during or before the more important unrest.

We developed software to be used as tools by our partner institutions.

Furthermore, we encourage cooperation between our partners. Next, please.

I want to stress that this is not just a one-way process.

I learn much by mentoring our colleagues.

This, for example, one of the papers we published recently together with my colleagues.

What is more important,

I learn much by the professional and cultural exchange with

our colleagues and friends of other volcano observatory. Thank you.

Hi. This is Sally Sennert.

My main job is writing the Smithsonian USGS weekly volcanic activity report.

But I help support VDAP's remote sensing mission part-time.

The team consists of me,

Julie Griswold, and Rick Wessels.

We are supported by a staff at the National Civil Applications Center,

also known as the NCAC,

which is a SCIF in Reston.

Also by three talented image analysts there.

Those analysts have been reviewing the classified data since the pandemic

started with guidance from Rick, Julie, and myself.

The remote sensing team looks at image data that are publicly available,

accessible through research agreements,

we look at commercial images and classified data in

Reston only to support our international partners.

Data's collected regularly for VDAP targeted volcanoes though with variable frequencies.

For volcanoes not currently erupting,

we collect fewer images,

mainly for baseline measurements.

For erupting volcanoes, we analyze the data as frequently as possible.

In total, we utilize satellite data for about 110 volcanoes per year.

We also make use of the International Charter for Space and Major Disasters,

which is a consortium of international space agencies and

companies that share data for a short window of time around a crisis.

Julie Griswold heads up that enormous effort,

most recently for Merapi.

When an international partner makes a request,

we respond with a description of what we see in the data.

Occasionally, an accompanying hand sketch or

digital sketch is included to help convey our observations.

On the upper left part of the slide,

you can see an example of a recent hand-drawn sketch for Merapi.

The other example is a digital sketch for Merapi that we had sent to

Indonesia during the precursory phase of Merapi's latest dome-forming eruption.

As you can see, the sketches can be quite detailed and are

an effective way to show the progression of activity over time.

One latest development in our communication to partners was made

possible by a new tool created by Diana Norgaard.

With the new tool, we easily input our volcanic activity summaries into a database.

Software then takes each summary and sends

it as an email update to the correct partner.

Because of this development,

we now send out summaries monthly.

Thank you.

VDAPs geology component participates in a variety of different activities.

These can be anything from actual hazards mapping to delineating eruption histories,

studying individual deposits of some specific interests.

A lot of different aspects of field geology.

We always carry out these projects in full collaboration with our foreign partners.

It's an area where some of the folks in the domestic program have

really helped us out in the past and hopefully will continue to do so in the future.

An excellent example of this would be

Judy Fierstein's worked down at Laguna del Maule that resulted

in the first ever tri-national hazards map for Argentina and Chile.

This was a really big deal for anybody who knows the politics down there.

We also do straight up thematic training workshops

where we just bring people in from a variety of different countries,

stuff them in a room or take them out in the field, and go at it.

In this case, it would have been, for instance,

here, a training session that Julie Griswold and I

did in Lanin Volcano in Argentina on lahar hazards.

More recently, we've been starting to get into petrologic monitoring.

Mostly it's Heather Wright who is leading this up.

But that's just generally trying to leverage the information available

in volcanic ash to better understand the magma dynamics

and the eruption dynamics in as near real-time as we can, to

understand the outcome of that particular sequence of eruptions anyway.

Onto the next.

Building upon the discipline specific studies that you've just heard about,

including geology, that's near and dear to my heart,

all of these disciplines and those in the slides to

come are frequently integrated during remote response.

I'll use this as a segue into discussion of our work on multi-disciplinary forecasts.

People often ask me how to remote responses work for VDAP.

Although all responses require an official request for assistance,

the initiation mechanism varies and the amount and types of data exchanged vary.

We always approach response as

a collaboration and often learn a lot from our counterparts.

Making "assistance", especially with regards to forecasts,

a very two-way process.

The types of exchange can include data and analysis exchange in both directions.

We might provide a framework for forecasts that are completed by our partners.

It may include a discussion of preliminary results or interpretation,

a list of remaining questions or

additional instrumentation that seem like they would provide valuable information.

Or perhaps a list of trigger points that would

cause concern among our own group. Next slide, please.

Many of you know that we use event trees to frame our forecasts where event trees,

present a logical framework for scenarios to come from volcanic unrest period.

The input data that inform probabilities

that are subjectively assessed within a group include

geologic record, eruptive history,

machine-learning algorithms, including those you've

heard a little bit about today in seismology,

expert elicitation of a group that might include the VDAP group,

but often increasingly extends to people outside of our group.

People in the VSC, scientists around the world or our partner countries.

We incorporate a lot of different model simulations and results.

Next slide please, and here are some model results from projects.

You can see both Ash3D and energy cone and Titan2D results from Agung volcano.

LaharZ model results incorporated into

hazard maps at Fuego volcano that are now posted in online dynamic 3D maps there.

The results of DomeHaz ensemble models that were

used to forecast the duration of the Sinabung eruption.

A clip from anonymous elicitation forums that

incorporate information and opinion from experts around the world,

and are then relayed to the team in terms of the forecast and uncertainty on forecasts.

All of these contribute to current projects that include things like

generating generic event trees for

different types of volcanoes, like dome-forming volcanoes,

evaluating forecast success, and borrowing

methods from weather science and from political science,

including Brier scores and assessing potential sources of bias and

forecasting with lessons learned from behavioral science. Thanks.

As Heather explained VDAP uses this multiple datasets method for eruption forecasting,

one part of which includes analyzing global volcano data.

For example, we commonly use VEI distributions for

different analog sets of volcano to help inform

our probability estimations for eruption size.

This global data comes from a variety of sources including VDAP's,

collective memory from the literature,

from topical databases like DomeHaz and Flowdat

and often from the Smithsonian Global Volcanism Program database.

Next slide. However, most existing databases

don't have the level of detail needed to answer common VDAP forecasting

questions such as what percentage of unrest leads to eruption or how long after

eruption onset do the paroxysmal explosions occur as well as many more.

To answer these questions,

we've built a database and are populating it with very detailed eruption chronologies.

These eruption chronologies are back-

populated from the literature and from other sources like

GVP bulletins and they are entered in near real-time during various crises.

The database includes all events such as explosions, PDCs,

dome-growth, and the properties of

those events such as column height, volume, runout distance.

Currently there's about 10,000 events that have been populated into the database.

Most of these focus on dome-forming eruptions as our starting point. Next slide.

We use the eruption chronology database alongside other existing databases.

In a lot of different ways,

none of which I can get into detail about,

but we use it to visualize timelines of event data during crises,

to analyze global statistical trends,

to compare activity-to-activity at analogous volcanoes.

To fill in gaps where local knowledge might be really sparse,

to inform our conceptual models and to derive model input parameters. Thanks.

Hi everyone. I'm Christoph Kern and together with Peter Kelly,

the two of us make up the VDAP geochemistry team.

Each of us are actually half-time VDAP employees and

we work half-time with the domestic program.

Over the last decade or decade and a half or so,

the field of gas geochemistry has really gained

a lot of importance at volcano observatories around the world,

and that's been spurred on by the increasing realization that gases carry

significant diagnostic information useful for understanding volcanic processes.

Also, by technological advances that now allow

gas emissions to be monitored continuously and in real-time.

Peter and I both work on developing and deploying such instruments.

One example is the multiGAS instrument,

several of which are shown in the lower left side of the slide.

This instrument can be used or installed near volcanic vents,

and it measures the main chemical speciation of the emitted gas over time.

As you can see here, Peter organizes regular workshops focused on multiGAS assembly,

maintenance and data analysis,

for our international partners.

Also, as you may have noticed in that picture there also for our VSC colleagues.

Now there are about 15 of these instruments on volcanoes around the world.

Miniature versions can even be flown on UAS.

You can see that in the bottom center where such an instrument was

flown in the plume of Agung volcano during the 2017 unrest.

I, for my part, I focused more on

ground-based and aerial remote sensing of volcanic gases and in particular,

developing, deploying and training on DOAS instruments.

DOAS instruments measure the absorption of sunlight passing through

volcanic plumes that allows determination of gas emission rates.

Mostly we're looking at SO2.

One example is shown in the top center,

where we're installing a DOAS at Sinabung volcano in Indonesia.

VDAP also supports the NOVAC network,

which is an international community of volcano observatories that

run DOAS instruments on about 50 volcanoes or so around the world.

We organize and fund workshops that get that community together every few years.

Finally, both Peter and I try to help our counterparts on research projects

and provide assistance in to

them for getting there interesting results published. Thanks.

I assist partners with their high resolution topographic needs through

various photogrammetry techniques and imaging platforms

from drone to traditional aircraft to optical satellite data,

depending on what's available and what's the best tool for the job.

High resolution DEMs are critical for hazardous flow modeling.

Morphometry studies, change detection, volume estimates,

they can improve inSAR

infrasound analyses, be used for instrumentation

siting and as basis for geologic and hazard mapping.

Successive time series of DEMs of

erupting volcanoes provide some of the most fundamental metrics of an eruption.

The rate of effusion, the volume of erupted lava.

Although high resolution DEMs serve many purposes,

these datasets are often lacking for many volcanoes around the world.

During eruptions, I support our partners with both remote and on-site assistance.

Remote assistance is usually done by a tasking and

processing of high resolution optical satellite data,

like you see on the bottom left.

Next. I also run workshops and

trainings at the request of our partners to put

these techniques and capabilities into their hands,

with the ultimate goal of having photogrammetry be

another routine monitoring tool in their toolbox.

These trainings usually involve a field component,

typically with a drone platform or redesign a field survey, learn

processing pipelines, and most importantly, analysis and interpretation.

Sometimes these involved 20-30 people from various disciplines,

and sometimes they take a one-on-one scenario.

I also support our partner observatories in

scientific and research applications utilizing various photogrammetry techniques.

In the end, it's all about what our partners need to better do their jobs.

Finally, through all of these activities,

we are continuously building partnerships and relationships across the globe. Thanks.

We've been hearing a lot that VDAP does a lot of

our training and capacity building through missions, through crisis responses,

through international meetings and workshops,

but the centerpiece of our training program is really a remarkable partnership that we

have had with the Center for the Study of Active Volcanism at the University of Hawaii.

We've been partners with them at least since 1995.

Jointly, we run an annual 7 plus week

international training class for

mid-career scientists and technicians in Hawaii and in the Pacific Northwest.

The course is taught by people from UHH,

from the VSC at large, and VDAP staff.

It covers a range of topics,

including volcano monitoring, field methods, forecasting,

event trees, volcano hazard maps,

observatory operations, crisis communications, and hazard modeling.

Next, please. The map here shows the worldwide impact of this course.

It shows the distribution of attendees from the very first 1990 class until 2019.

2020 and 2021 both classes were canceled owing to the pandemic.

Since 1990, there have been 264 participants in the class from 31 countries.

The top three being Philippines with 34,

Indonesia with 31, Peru with 27.

The list of participants includes

a veritable who's who of the volcano observatories of the world.

Scientists in charge, technicians,

engineers have all passed through the program.

Major thanks to all of you in

the audience who have helped to make this incredible program such a success,

and a huge shout out and thank you to

Darcy Bevens and Don Thomas of the University of Hawaii,

without whom this program would be not possible to be run.

VDAP does not have the resources to do this.

This partnership has been incredibly fruitful and influential worldwide. Thanks.

The International Volcano Activity Notification System

known as IVANS was developed with the primary purpose of rapidly

disseminating information and analysis about

volcanic unrest and eruptions with a focus on volcanoes throughout Latin America,

and the Caribbean, and East Asia-Pacific.

This information is disseminated via situation

reports or sit-reps to US government entities,

such as but not limited to, US embassies,

BHA field offices, the US military,

and the White House Security Council.

IVAN sit-reps are event-driven.

For example, if an alert level is raised or evacuations occur,

they provide situational awareness to US government officials and most

importantly include value-added information of VDAP analysis,

forecasts, and a response to an evolving situation.

This year marks the 10th anniversary of IVANS,

and I'm happy to report that the system in IVANS

is now a reality thanks to Diana Norgaard.

We have a web app that allows many users in VDAP to craft, review,

and distribute sit-reps. We also have

pre-calculated volcano population indices for volcanoes

of the world along with estimates of

downstream populations at risk based on digitized hazard maps.

Sit-reps include simplified hazard maps that provide visual context of potential hazards,

location of critical infrastructure like airports,

as well as major population centers. Thank you.

My name is Diana Norgaard,

and I came on as VDAP Computer Scientist in 2017.

My initial work consisted primarily of development support for SWARM and NOVAC software.

SWARM is a visualization software for seismic data.

NOVAC software is used for acquisition and analysis of gas emissions data.

Both software have been around a very long time and are still used globally today.

Other software developed by USGS,

that are used widely in the VSC, are Earthworm, Winston, and Valve.

For these, VDAP offers installation,

training, and support to partners.

In 2018, we installed Valve in Indonesia and Costa Rica.

In 2020, we provided online training of Earthworm and

Winston to observatories in Argentina, Peru, and Guatemala.

In addition to support for software used by our partners,

I also developed software for internal VDAP use.

This includes a monitoring and evaluation database for reporting to USAID,

an application to create and disseminate IVANS,

another to disseminate remote sensing observations,

and a dashboard for getting data on volcanoes worldwide.

Finally, we tried to encourage knowledge-sharing and collaboration between observatories,

particularly in Central and South America where they have a common language.

In 2019 VDAP hosted in Guatemala,

it's first time there for IT professionals

working in Latin American volcano observatories.

During COVID, we continued to bring IT folks together in the region,

by organizing talks from the various observatories. Next.

Hi again. Binational exchanges are opportunities to bring together

non-scientist stakeholders in volcanic risk mitigation with

volcano observatories to share experiences related to volcanic unrest,

eruption, and sometimes disaster.

These exchanges are funded totally by USAID,

and are organized and facilitated by VDAP.

Volcano crises are outside most non-scientists' knowledge and experience,

and VDAP takes US stakeholders to places that have experienced

volcanic disasters so that emergency managers, first responders,

and other volcanic risk stakeholders can see

first-hand the eruption impacts and learn how their counterparts have managed.

In turn, our counterpart volcano observatories travel to

the US with their non-scientist stakeholders to learn,

observe, and participate in our hazards and risk mitigation activities.

Next, please. Binational exchanges

have occurred with various themes and numbers of participants.

Some of these include an ongoing Nevado del Ruiz -

Mount Rainier exchange focused on lahar risk.

We had a large incident-command system exchange that covered ICS at all levels of

practice during a week-long functional exercise

for a Cascadia Subduction Zone earthquake.

Another example is an exchange we had between Chile and CalVO focused on

explosive volcanism and mass evacuation related to Chaiten and Long Valley.

The mass evacuation hasn't happened yet at Long Valley.

Binational exchanges have contributed to

markedly better stakeholder engagement in the Cascades,

in California, as well as in our counterpart countries.

USAID has been a strong supporter of the binational exchanges because they engage

a full cross-section of disciplines with roles

in emergency planning, preparation, and response.

Binational exchanges will continue once pandemic protocols are lifted,

and we hope that's soon. Thank you.

Some of the exchanges and projects that VDAP works on focus on socialization,

or helping people who live near volcanoes

understand their hazards and reduce their risk.

One example would be the last exchange before

the pandemic where educators from the State of Washington and

outreach experts from CVO attended an exchange on

volcano education for school children in Colombia.

VDAP also collaborates and exchanges ideas with

our counterpart's own outreach and

socialization programs in countries like Ecuador and Indonesia.

A newer partnership from VDAP is a risk assessment of the built environment and

population near volcanoes with GEM or the Global Earthquake Model Foundation in Italy.

GEM has built a global seismic risk database,

and now these data are being used in areas near and

downstream from volcanoes. Next slide, please.

With all that we are doing in VDAP,

how do we track progress on VDAP projects for evaluation

plus quarterly and annual reports that we need to submit to USAID?

VDAP uses a monitoring and evaluation system from USAID,

where we report on

17 different indicators and this is everything from the number of people living near

volcanoes where VDAP provided assistance to

the number of volcano-monitoring instruments donated during a quarter,

to the number of people trained in VDAP-led workshops,

to the number of presentations and publications that were produced.

All of this data goes into two different databases for monitoring and evaluation,

and it's accessible through some websites.

Internally then we can use these to answer questions like,

when was the last time that VDAP responded to events at a certain volcano

or what instrumentation was recently donated to counterparts at a certain volcano?

Also this year, we have an external evaluation of VDAP,

which is now underway.

It's designed and conducted by a team of

sociologists from Florida International University.

This is a chance for our counterparts to give responses and feedback to

us about what programs they like that VDAP is doing and what we could do better,

and we hope to have that wrapped up at the end of May and start using

these data to improve our programs moving forward. Back to you Jake.

Thank you all for your attention.

That wraps up what we wanted to provide for you;

an overview of the program.

There are a lot of new employees in the VSC over the past few years and

really a lot of the employees out there aren't that familiar with the VDAP program,

so we wanted to use this new Teams method

for getting all of us together to talk to you all

about what we do in VDAP and talk about how

VDAP supports both USAID and the Volcano Hazards Program.

We also want to hear from you.

We feel that we're better when we can take

the things that are being advanced in the VSC and bring them to the world,

and we think we're better when we get the fresh ideas of you all working with us on

various trips and working with us on different projects.

Please reach out to anyone you know in VDAP or send a note and hopefully,

with your supervisor's permission,

we can work together someday.

With that said, we're about 45 minutes in,

and we can answer questions if you're interested.

Thanks very much.