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Attempts to measure and mitigate the effects of wind turbines on wildlife have been an integral part of wind energy development.

Collision mortality, displacement, and habitat loss can cause population level effects, especially for species that are rare or endangered. A team of international researchers reviewed case studies from Spain, Norway, Canada, the United States, and southern Africa that document the impact of wind energy development on raptors. Authors give an overview of raptor species affected by wind farms, discuss monitoring and mitigation strategies, and address how studying raptor behavior can inform turbine siting to minimize collision risks. They also discuss common conclusions among the case studies and directions for future research. This review illustrates the global state of knowledge of the effects of wind energy development on raptors.

Watson, R.T., Kolar, P.S., Ferrer, M., Nygard, T., Johnston, N., Hunt, W.G., Smit-Robinson, H.A., Farmer, C., Huso, M.M., Katzner, T.E., 2018, Raptor interactions with wind energy- case studies from around the world: Journal of Raptor Research, v. 52, no. 1, p. 1-18,

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