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January 19, 2023

HVO scientists collect detailed data to assess hazards and understand how the eruption is evolving at Kīlauea's summit, all of which are shared with the National Park Service and emergency managers. Access to this hazardous area is by permission from, and in coordination with, Hawai‘i Volcanoes National Park. 

Color maps of lava lake temperature
This compilation shows thermal maps since the start of the eruption in Halema‘uma‘u, at the summit of Kīlauea. The map sequence shows the focusing of lava lake activity into two main lakes on the crater floor. The scale of the thermal map ranges from blue to red, with blue colors indicative of cooler temperatures and red colors indicative of warmer temperatures.
Color map of lava lake temperature
A helicopter overflight on January 17, 2023, allowed for aerial visual and thermal imagery to be collected of Halema‘uma‘u crater at the summit of Kīlauea. The largest lava lake is located in the eastern portion of the crater, though lava has also filled the areas previously active in the western portion of the crater. The scale of the thermal map ranges from blue to red, with blue colors indicative of cooler temperatures and red colors indicative of warmer temperatures.
Color map of lava lake temperature
A helicopter overflight on January 17, 2023, allowed for aerial visual and thermal imagery to be collected of Halema‘uma‘u crater at the summit of Kīlauea. The largest lava lake is located in the eastern portion of the crater, though lava has also filled the areas previously active in the western portion of the crater. The scale of the thermal map ranges from blue to red, with blue colors indicative of cooler temperatures and red colors indicative of warmer temperatures.
Color photograph of steaming caldera edge
Plumes of steam were easily visible coming from Wahinekapu (Steaming Bluff) during the January 17 overflight of Kīlauea summit. USGS photo by C. Parcheta.
Color photograph of crater with fog
A layer of fog covers the southern portion of Kīlauea Iki crater, as shown by this early morning overflight photo. USGS photo by C. Parcheta.
Color photograph of lava lake
Lava lake activity continues in Halema‘uma‘u crater, at the summit of Kīlauea volcano. This photo from the January 17 overflight looks west and shows that the eastern lake, in the foreground, remains stable. This eastern lake is supplied by a single fountain marked by the bright spot of incandescence. The smaller western lake is also active, and can be seen through the thick fume that rises from the crater. USGS photo by C. Parcheta.
Color photograph of lava lake
The eruption in Halema‘uma‘u crater, at the summit of Kīlauea, continues with steady lava lake activity. The largest lake is in the eastern portion of the crater, and is supplied by a single fountain. A smaller lake is also active in the western portion of the crater, along with two other much smaller lakes. USGS photo by M. Patrick.
Color map of eruption at summit of volcano
This reference map depicts the Kīlauea summit eruption on January 18, 2023. The provided eruption statistics are derived from helicopter overflight data collected on January 17, 2023, but map features have been updated based on January 18 webcam views. One eruptive vent is active inside Halema‘uma‘u crater, within the actively circulating lava lake (red) on the eastern side of the crater floor. The extent of the active lava lake—the area in red—is 27 acres (11 hectares); part of this area is comprised of the active lava lake footprint from the end of the 2021–22 eruption, which has filled with new lava that upwelled from below. The full extent of new lava from this eruption, totaling both the active lava lake (red) and flows that have crusted over (pink) is 292 acres (118 hectares). Although this eruption has expanded the footprint of post-2018 lava within the crater, citizen scientists may note that this full extent value is smaller than that at the end of the 2021–22 eruption: 295 acres (119 hectares). This discrepancy exists because two higher-standing sections of crater floor (yellow) have not yet been overflowed with new lava. The volume-averaged surface elevation of the entire Halema‘uma‘u crater floor is 2,940 feet (896 meters) above sea level, representing a rise of 30 feet (9 meters) since the beginning of this eruption on January 5, 2023.
The eruption in Halema‘uma‘u crater, at the summit of Kīlauea, continues with steady lava lake activity. The largest lake is in the eastern portion of the crater, and is supplied by a single fountain. A smaller lake is also active in the western portion of the crater, along with two other much smaller lakes.