Skip to main content
U.S. flag

An official website of the United States government

Calc-alkaline, shoshonitic, and primitive tholeiitic lavas from monogenetic volcanoes near Crater Lake, Oregon

February 1, 1990

Quaternary monogenetic volcanism in the High Cascades of Oregon is manifested by cinder cones, lava fields, and small shields. Near Crater Lake caldera, monogenetic lava compositions include: low-K (as low as 0·09% K2O) high-alumina olivine tholeiite (HAOT); medium-K. calc-alkaline basalt, basaltic andesite, and andesite; and shoshonitic basaltic andesite (2·1% K2O, 1750 ppm Sr at 54% SiO2). Tholeiites have MORB-like trace element abundances except for elevated Sr, Ba, and Th and low high field strength elements (HFSE), and they represent near-primary liquids. They are similar to HAOTs from the Cascades and adjacent Basin and Range, and to many primitive basalts from intraoceanic arcs. Calc-alkaline lavas show a well-developed arc signature of high large-ion lithophile elements (LILE) and low HFSE. Their Zr and Hf concentrations are at least partly decoupled from those of Nb and Ta; HREE are low relative to HAOT. Incompatible element abundances and ratios vary widely among basaltic andesites. Some calc-alkaline lavas vented near Mount Mazama contain abundant gabbroic microxcnoliths, and are basaltic andesitic magmas contaminated with olivine gabbro.

A calc-alkaline basalt and a few basaltic andesites have MgO and compatible trace element contents that suggest only minor fractionation. There appears to be a compositional continuum between primitive tholeiitic and calc-alkaline lavas. Compositional variation within suites of comagmatic primitive lavas, both tholeiitic and calc-alkaline, mainly results from different degrees of partial melting. Sources of calc-alkaline primary magmas were enriched in LILE and LREE by a subduction component and contained residual garnet, whereas sources of HAOTs had lower LILE and LREE concentrations and contained residual clinopyroxene. High and variable LILE and LREE contents of calc-alkaline lavas reflect variations in fluid-transported subduction component added to the mantle wedge, degree of partial melting, and possibly also interaction with rocks or partial melts in the lower crust.

Andesites were derived from calc-alkaline basaltic andesites by fractionation of plagioclase+augite+magnetite+apatite ± orthopyroxene or olivine, commonly accompanied by assimilation. Many andesites are mixtures of andesitic or dacitic magma and a basaltic or basaltic andesitic component, or are contaminated with gabbroic material. Mingled basalt, andesite, and dacite of Williams Crater formed by multi-component, multi-stage mixing of basaltic andesitic magma, gabbro, and dacitic magma. The wide range of compositions vented from monogenetic volcanoes near Crater Lake is a result of the thick crust coupled with mild tectonic extension superimposed on a subduction-related magmatic arc.

Citation Information

Publication Year 1990
Title Calc-alkaline, shoshonitic, and primitive tholeiitic lavas from monogenetic volcanoes near Crater Lake, Oregon
DOI 10.1093/petrology/31.1.135
Authors Charles R. Bacon
Publication Type Article
Publication Subtype Journal Article
Series Title Journal of Petrology
Index ID 70200575
Record Source USGS Publications Warehouse
USGS Organization Volcano Science Center

Related Content