Concentrations of arsenic, antimony, and boron in steam and steam condensate at The Geysers, California
Studies at The Geysers Geothermal Field, California indicate that under some circumstances elements that are transported in the vapor phase can become enriched in the liquid phase. Waters from two condensate traps (steam traps) on steam lines at The Geysers are enriched with arsenic, antimony, and boron compared to the concentrations of these elements in coexisting steam. Concentrations of boron in condensate-trap waters were as high as 160 mg/L, arsenic as high as 35 mg/L, and antimony as high as 200 ??g/L. Enrichment of arsenic, antimony, and boron is at least partially controlled by the partitioning of these elements into the liquid phase, according to their vapor-liquid distribution coefficients, after they are transported in steam. Several of the elements that are most soluble in steam, including arsenic and antimony, are part of the trace-element suite that characterizes precious-metal epithermal ore deposits. ?? 1987.
|Concentrations of arsenic, antimony, and boron in steam and steam condensate at The Geysers, California
|C. L. Smith, W. H. Ficklin, J. M. Thompson
|Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research
|USGS Publications Warehouse