Rare earths, although equal to or more abundant than thorium in many thorium veins, are much less abundant than thorium in the veins on Hall Mountain, Idaho. Total rare-earth content of these veins ranges from 0.00111 to 0.197 percent in 12 samples from 10 veins; the thoria (ThO2 ) content, from 0.011 to 5.84 percent. The rare-earth oxide to thoria ratios range from 0.0019 to 3.22. Only two samples contained more rare earths than thorium, and these two samples came from veins related to a fault near the base of a thick sill; the others came from veins near the top of the same sill.
The relative amounts of the individual lanthanides are remarkably similar in the Hall Mountain veins, although cerium, gadolinium, or dysprosium are the most abundant in different samples. These veins differ in lanthanide distribution both from the Earth's crust and from the thorium veins of the Lemhi Pass district, Idaho and Montana, in that they contain chiefly yttrium-group rare earths. Most of the rare earths occur in thorite, whose atomic structure will accommodate wide-ranging proportions of the rare earths. Cenosite, one of the few minerals with a high content of the yttrium group of rare earths, was found in one vein.
Distribution and occurrence of rare earths in the thorium veins on Hall Mountain, Idaho
Mortimer H. Staatz, Van E. Shaw, James S. Wahlberg