Spray irrigation is a method for disposing of secondary treated municipal wastewater by spraying it on the land surface (fig. 1). The sprayed wastewater either evaporates into the air, soaks into the soil, or percolates through the soil and recharges the ground water. Land application of wastewater has advantages over conventional means of disposal by direct discharge to streams because the wastewater recharges the ground-water system and increases base flow in streams. Additional benefits are derived from the "natural" treatment of the wastewater that takes place in the soil when plants and other biota remove some nutrients (nitrogen and phosphorus) from the wastewater (Pennsylvania Department of Environmental Protection, 2003). The removal of nutrients is one advantage spray irrigation has to conventional disposal methods like instream discharge.
|Title||Effects of spray-irrigated municipal wastewater on a small watershed in Chester County, Pennsylvania|
|Authors||Curtis L. Schreffler, Daniel G. Galeone|
|Publication Subtype||USGS Numbered Series|
|Series Title||Fact Sheet|
|Record Source||USGS Publications Warehouse|
|USGS Organization||Pennsylvania Water Science Center|