Hepatic gene expression profiling of American kestrels (Falco sparverius) exposed in ovo to three alternative brominated flame retardants
September 12, 2022
A number of brominated flame retardants (BFRs) have been reported to interfere with the thyroid signaling pathway and cause oxidative stress in birds, yet the underlying shifts in gene expression associated with these effects remain poorly understood. In this study, we measured hepatic transcriptional responses of 31 genes in American kestrel (Falco sparverius) hatchlings following in ovo exposure to one of three high-volume alternative BFRs: 1,2-bis(2,4,6-tribromophenoxy) ethane (BTPBE), bis(2-ethylhexyl)-2,3,4,5-tetrabromophthalate (TBPH), or 2-ethylhexyl-2,3,4,5-tetrabromobenzoate (EHTBB). Hatchling kestrels exhibited shifts in the expression of genes related to oxidative stress (CYP, GSTA, SOD, and GPX1), thyroid hormone metabolism and transport (DIO1, DIO2, and TTR), lipid and protein metabolism (PPAR, HMGCR, FAB1, and LPL), and cytokine-mediated inflammation (TLR3, IL18, IRF7, STAT3, RACK1, and CEBPB). Male and female hatchlings differed in which genes were differentially expressed, as well as the direction of the effect (up- vs. downregulation). These results build upon our previous findings of increased oxidative stress and disrupted thyroid signaling pathway in the same hatchlings. Furthermore, our results indicate that inflammatory responses appear to occur in female hatchlings exposed to BTBPE and EHTBB in ovo. Gene expression analysis revealed multiple affected pathways, adding to the growing evidence that sublethal physiological effects are complex and are a concern for birds exposed to BTBPE, EHTBB, or TBPH in ovo.
|Hepatic gene expression profiling of American kestrels (Falco sparverius) exposed in ovo to three alternative brominated flame retardants
|Christopher G. Goodchild, Natalie K. Karouna-Renier, Ryan P. Braham, Paula F. P. Henry, Robert J. Letcher, Kim J. Fernie
|USGS Publications Warehouse
|Patuxent Wildlife Research Center; Eastern Ecological Science Center