Hydrographic and sedimentation survey of Kajakai Reservoir, Afghanistan
A hydrographic and sedimentation survey of Band-e Kajakai (Kajakai Reservoir) on the Darya-ye Hirmand (Helmand River) was carried out during the period September through December 1968. Underwater mapping techniques were used to determine the reservoir capacity as of 1968. Sediment range lines were established and monumented to facilitate future sedimentation surveys. Afghanistan engineers and technicians were trained to carry out future reservoir surveys. Samples were obtained of the reservoir bed and in the river upstream from the reservoir. Virtually no sediments coarser than about 0.063 millimeter were found on the reservoir bed surface. The median diameter of sands being transported into the reservoir ranged from 0.040 to 0.110 millimeter. The average annual rate of sedimentation was 7,800 acre-feet. Assuming an average density of 50 pounds per cubic foot (800 kilograms per cubic meter), the estimated average sediment inflow to the reservoir was about 8,500,000 tons (7,700,000 metric tons) per year.
The decrease in capacity at spillway elevation for the period 1953 to 1968 due to sediment deposition was 7.8 percent, or 117,700 acre-feet. Redefinition of several contours above the fill area resulted in an increase in capacity at spillway elevation of 13,600 acre-feet; thus, the net change in capacity was 7.0 percent, or 104,800 acre-feet.
Based on current data and an estimated rate of compaction of deposited sediment, the assumption of no appreciable change in hydrologic conditions in the drainage area, the leading edge of the principal delta will reach the irrigation outlet in 40-45 years.
It is recommended that a resurvey of sediment range lines be made during the period 1973-75.
|Hydrographic and sedimentation survey of Kajakai Reservoir, Afghanistan
|Don C. Perkins, James K. Culbertson
|USGS Numbered Series
|Water Supply Paper
|USGS Publications Warehouse