Biomarkers may be used to determine chemical exposure and effects in several important ways. These include (1) evaluation of new agricultural or industrial chemicals for effects, (2) screening of municipal or industrial effluents, (3) determining the geographic distribution of chemical effects in the environment and their changes over time, (4) determining the identity and source of chemical pollutants, and (5) establishing cause and effect linkages.
|Title||Implementation of biomarker-based studies|
|Authors||John J. Stegeman, Brenda E. Ballachey, J. Bickham, B. Höcker, S. Kennedy, H. Thompson, A.D. Vethaak|
|Publication Type||Book Chapter|
|Publication Subtype||Book Chapter|
|Record Source||USGS Publications Warehouse|
|USGS Organization||Alaska Science Center|