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This paper examines the concept and implementation of a map as a knowledge base. A map as a knowledge base means that the visual map is not only the descriptive compilation of data and design principles, but also involves a compilation of semantic propositions and logical predicates that create a body of knowledge organized as a map. The digital product of a map as knowledge base can be interpreted by machines, as well as humans, and can provide access to the knowledge base through interfaces to select features and other information from the map. The design of maps as a knowledge base involves technical approaches and a system architecture to support a knowledge base. This paper clarifies how a map as a knowledge base differs from earlier map theory models by investigating the knowledge-based concepts of implementation through logical modelling, a knowledge repository, user interfaces for information access, and cartographic visualization. The paper ends with proof of concepts for two types of cartographic data query.