Research studies based on foreland basins (mainly in eastern Colorado) examined three surface geochemical exploration (SGE) methods as possible hydrocarbon (HC) exploration techniques. The first method, microbial soil surveying, has high potential as an exploration tool, especially hi development and enhanced recovery operations. Integrative adsorption, the second technique, is not effective as a quantitative SGE method because water, carbon dioxide, nitrous oxide, unsaturated hydrocarbons, and organic compounds are collected by the adsorbent (activated charcoal) much more strongly than covalently bonded microseeping Q-Cs thermogenic HCs. Qualitative comparisons (pattern recognition) of C8+ mass spectra cannot gauge HC gas microseepage that involves only the Q-Cs HCs. The third method, soil cakite surveying, also has no potential as an exploration tool. Soil calcite concentrations had patterns with pronounced areal contrasts, but these patterns had no geometric relationship to surface traces of established or potential production, that is, the patterns were random. Microscopic examination of thousands of soils revealed that soil calcite was an uncrystallized caliche coating soil particles. During its precipitation, caliche captures or occludes any gases, elements, or compounds in its immediate vicinity. Thus, increased signal intensity of some SGE methods should depend on increasing soil calcite concentrations. Analyses substantiate this hypothesis. Because soil calcite has no utility as a surface exploration tool, any surface method that depends on soil calcite has a diminished utility as an SGE tool. Isotopic analyses of soil calcites revealed carbonate carbon ??13C values of -4.0 to +2.07co (indicating a strong influence of atmospheric CO2) as opposed to expected values of-45 to -30%c if the carbonate carbon had originated from microbial oxidation of microseeping HC gases. These analyses confirm a surface origin for this soil calcite (caliche), which is not necessarily related to HC gas microseepage. This previously unappreciated pivotal role of caliche is hypothesized to contribute significantly to the poor and inconsistent results of some SGE methods.