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Two people sit on the remains of a building looking at debris on a street with bent-over parking meter in foreground.
December 31, 1960

Aftermath of Chilean tsunami in Hilo, Hawaii

Aftermath of the 1960 Chilean tsunami in Hilo, Hawaii, where the tsunami caused 61 deaths.

Displacement of Kapoho fault scarp, Kīlauea Volcano, Hawai‘i, cause...
January 13, 1960

Displacement of Kapoho fault scarp, Kīlauea, Hawai‘i, caused by mag...

View westward along the Kapoho fault scarp in the village of Kapoho following a swarm of earthquakes in the area. The ground cracking was caused by subsidence of a graben (down-dropped block) that spanned the community. The subsidence accompanied the rise of magma along this part of the East Rift Zone, which erupted a few hours later less than about 600 m (1,970 ft) from

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Lava fountain in early morning, Kīlauea Iki, Kīlauea Volcano, Hawai...
December 19, 1959

Lava fountain in early morning, Kīlauea Iki, Kīlauea, Hawai‘i

Great quantities of lava pour from the base of a 480-m-tall (1,575 ft) fountain about 65 minutes after the start of episode 16. Lava discharge at this time was about 1.3 million cubic meters per hour (1.7 million cubic yards), which sent lava over the entire lake by 4:05 a.m. The lava fountain illuminates the top of Pu‘u Pua‘i cone, which is about half as high as the

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Ka‘apuna lava flow, Mauna Loa 1950, creates steam plume as it enter...
June 2, 1950

Ka‘apuna lava flow, Mauna Loa 1950, creates steam plume as it enter...

The Ka‘apuna flow traveled from the Southwest Rift Zone vent (7,800 ft elevation) to the coast in just 17 hours.

Fissure of lava fountains erupting from Mauna Loa's upper southwest...
June 2, 1950

Fissure of lava fountains erupting from Mauna Loa's upper SW rift z...

Fissure of lava fountains erupting from Mauna Loa's upper southwest rift zone, June 2, 1950. Plumes of volcanic gas rise high into the air. Aerial photograph taken by the Air National Guard.

A fast-moving ‘s‘ā flow erupted from Mauna Loa in 1950 as it advanc...
June 2, 1950

A fast-moving ‘A‘ā flow erupted from Mauna Loa in 1950 as it advanc...

Aerial photograph shows the Ka‘apuna lava flow erupted from Mauna Loa in 1950 as it advanced through the forest at about 3,000 feet elevation on the morning of June 2. This rapidly moving ‘a‘ā lava flow traveled from the Southwest Rift Zone vent to the ocean in about 17 hours. Earlier flows from this same eruption reached the ocean in as little as three hours.

Aerial photograph of the 1942 Mauna Loa lava flow spreading downslo...
April 28, 1942

Aerial photograph of the 1942 Mauna Loa lava flow spreading downslo...

Aerial photograph of the 1942 Mauna Loa lava flow spreading downslope toward Hilo; smoke from burning trees in center of flow. Scattered cinder cones at the summit of Mauna Kea, top of photograph.

Aerial view by the Naval Air Service of the 1933 Mauna Loa eruption...
November 22, 1935

Aerial view by the Naval Air Service of the 1933 Mauna Loa eruption...

Aerial view by the Naval Air Service of the 1933 Mauna Loa eruption from a fissure across the rim and floor of Moku‘āweoweo Crater.

video thumbnail: Mauna Loa Volcano Hawaii -- 1930s Eruption (Part 1 of 5)
December 31, 1929

Mauna Loa Volcano Hawaii -- 1930s Eruption (Part 1 of 5)

Part 1 of 5

Remarkable silent film, 16mm Kodachrome movie film. Probably the first color film ever made of a volcanic eruption. Mokuaweoweo Crater eruption filmed probably in late 1935 by Harold T. Stearns, a USGS Hydrologist-Volcanologist. The lava fountains are hundreds of feet high, the erupting fissure inside the crater is about two thousand feet long. The

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video thumbnail: Mauna Loa Volcano Hawaii -- 1930s Eruption (Part 2 of 5)
December 31, 1929

Mauna Loa Volcano Hawaii -- 1930s Eruption (Part 2 of 5)

Part 2 of 5

Remarkable silent film, 16mm Kodachrome movie film. Probably the first color film ever made of a volcanic eruption. Mokuaweoweo Crater eruption filmed probably in late 1935 by Harold T. Stearns, a USGS Hydrologist-Volcanologist. The lava fountains are hundreds of feet high, the erupting fissure inside the crater is about two thousand feet long. The

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video thumbnail: Mauna Loa Volcano Hawaii -- 1930s Eruption (Part 3 of 5)
December 31, 1929

Mauna Loa Volcano Hawaii -- 1930s Eruption (Part 3 of 5)

Part 3 of 5

Remarkable silent film, 16mm Kodachrome movie film. Probably the first color film ever made of a volcanic eruption. Mokuaweoweo Crater eruption filmed probably in late 1935 by Harold T. Stearns, a USGS Hydrologist-Volcanologist. The lava fountains are hundreds of feet high, the erupting fissure inside the crater is about two thousand feet long. The

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Lava from Kīlauea's East Rift Zone lessens...
June 18, 1993

The 10-year-long eruption on Kīlauea's East Rift Zone continues, with the only change being a decrease in eruption rate over the last few weeks. This decrease in rate correlates with the slowly deepening surface of the lava pond inside the Pu`u `O`o cone, as reported last week.

USGS
June 11, 1993

The largest earthquake in Hawai`i since January 26 occurred at 2:58 a.m. Tuesday. Many residents were awakened by the shaking from this magnitude-4.9 earthquake. The Jan. 26 earthquake, which occurred beneath Pahala, had a comparable magnitude. 

USGS
June 4, 1993

This week marks the anniversary of one of the largest of Mauna Loa's historic eruptions. On June 1, 1950, the last great eruption of Mauna Loa began just after 9:00 p.m. 

Eruption's flows continue, danger remains...
May 28, 1993

The eruption on Kīlauea's East Rift Zone continues with little change. The episode 51 and 53 vents on the southwest flank of the Pu`u `O`o cone continue to feed lava directly into a tube system that transports the lava to Palama Pali and beyond, to the ocean entries at Kamoamoa. 
 

USGS
May 21, 1993

A magnitude 3.0 earthquake was widely felt in the Hilo area on Thursday afternoon at 1:45 p.m. The earthquake was about 25 miles deep and was located offshore about 10 miles east of Hilo. 

USGS
May 15, 1993

Volcanoes around the world emit a variety of gases in different proportions, with the main components invariably being carbon dioxide, water, and sulfur dioxide. Minor components include, but are not limited to, hydrogen gas, carbon monoxide, hydrochloric acid, hydrofluoric acid, methane, and hydrogen sulfide.
 

USGS
May 14, 1993

May 18 marks the anniversary of the 1980 eruption of Mount St. Helens that laid waste to over 200 square miles of forest and killed 57 people, as well as thousands of wild animals and birds.
 

USGS
May 10, 1993

Kīlauea is famous for eruptions of the type we are now experiencing - quiet effusion of lava that makes the eruption approachable. However, not all of Kīlauea's eruptions have been so passive and approachable.

USGS
May 7, 1993

The 10-year-long eruption along Kīlauea's East Rift Zone continues with little change. Active flows travel underground to the ocean in lava tubes from the eruptive vents on the south and west sides of the Pu`u `O`o cone.
 

As lava slows, diversion of Etna discussed...
May 1, 1993

The episode 51 vents on the west flank of Pu`u `O`o were active from April 23 at about 11:00 a.m. until April 28 at 11:30 a.m., when the eruption stopped once again. Since then, the lava lake inside Pu`u `O`o vent has risen from about 140 to between 120 and 130 feet below the rim of the crater.
 

USGS
April 30, 1993

The 10-year-long eruption on Kīlauea's East Rift Zone continues with little change. During the week, the lavaentries into the ocean consolidated to three main entries on the east and west edges of the Kamoamoa flow and near the west edge of the Lae`apuki flow. 
 

USGS
April 23, 1993

The missing visitor to Hawai`i Volcanoes National Park serves as a tragic reminder that active volcanoes can be unpredictable and dangerous, however passive and approachable their eruptions. Kīlauea is no exception.