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Washington

States L2 Landing Page Tabs

Filter Total Items: 258
Small silver metal boat with USGS lettering on the side, water is splashing up on the side and a small wake is formed.
Date Published: June 3, 2019
Status: Active

PCMSC Marine Facility (Marfac)

Marfac is the operational arm of the Pacific Coastal and Marine Science Center. The Marine Facility staff provides mechanical and electronics expertise for field operations along the coast, in the nearshore environment, and in the deeper waters of the ocean.

Contacts: Timothy Elfers
Bogachiel River
Date Published: May 30, 2019
Status: Active

Quantifying suspended-sediment load and transport characteristics in the Calawah and Upper Bogachiel Rivers, Washington

The issue: Salmonid fisheries are an important cultural and economic activity and efforts to support a thriving fisheries industry remain a major priority for the Quileute Tribe on the Olympic Peninsula, Washington. Land use changes can have a profound influence on basin sediment production with direct effects on fisheries (Madej and Ozaki, 2009). Studies are needed to improve...

White River at Mud Mountain Dam
Date Published: May 28, 2019
Status: Active

Coarse sediment delivery and routing in the White River

The Issue: Ongoing channel aggradation has reduced flow conveyance along the lower White River, increasing the flood risk in urban-suburban areas. A refined understanding of the delivery, transport and deposition of sediment in the White River, and how those processes may be influenced by climate and existing dam operations, is necessary in order to plan for future flood...

Sauk River
Date Published: May 28, 2019
Status: Active

Fine sediment infiltration in Chinook spawning gravels in the Sauk River Basin, Washington

The Issue: Salmonid fisheries are an important cultural and economic activity and efforts to support a thriving fisheries industry remain a major priority for the Quileute Tribe. Land use changes can have a profound influence on basin sediment production with direct effects on fisheries. A reconnaissance evaluation for water year 1978 indicated that annual sediment loads in...

Block Island Wind Farm
Date Published: May 26, 2019
Status: Active

Resources: EXPRESS

Along the U.S. west coast, the Pacific Ocean, ocean floor, and winds above contain potentially vast energy and mineral resources. Developing these resources safely and wisely requires detailed information for each area of interest. One goal of EXPRESS is to inform ocean...

Map of offshore southern California showing the contours of the seafloor, with labels pointing to circles showing landslides.
Date Published: May 26, 2019
Status: Active

Hazards: EXPRESS

Marine geohazards including earthquakes, landslides, and tsunamis lie offshore of densely populated areas of California, Oregon, and Washington. One goal of EXPRESS is to improve assessments of these hazards.

cheatgrass
Date Published: May 23, 2019
Status: Active

Cheatgrass and Medusahead

Invasive annual grasses, such as cheatgrass (Bromus tectorum) and medusahead (Taeniatherum caput-medusae), are one of the most significant stressors to rangeland ecosystems in the western U.S. Their expansion and dominance across this area are the most damaging ecosystem agents on this iconic landscape.

Chambers-Clover Creek at Kobayashi Park
Date Published: May 8, 2019
Status: Active

Southeast Sound Groundwater Flow Model

The Issue: Groundwater is an important resource for domestic, commercial, and industrial usage in the Puyallup River and Chambers-Clover Creek Watersheds, and groundwater discharge helps maintain late-summer and early-fall streamflow (baseflow) in many area streams. Consequently, as the population grows, and commercial and industrial activity increase, so does the demand for...

Application to explore US Oil and Gas Assessments
Date Published: April 19, 2019
Status: Active

United States Assessments of Undiscovered Oil and Gas Resources

USGS Energy Resources Program provides periodic assessments of the oil and natural gas endowment of the United States and the World (click here for information about World Oil and Gas Assessments).  This website provides access to new, prioritized, assessment results and supporting data for the United States, as part...

December 2014 Pacific Coast flood events
Date Published: February 26, 2019
Status: Completed

December 2014 Pacific Coast Floods

Learn more about USGS flood activities related to the December 2014 Pacific Coast floods, which included flash floods, heavy snows, high winds, and mudslides throughout Oregon, Washington, and California.

Flushing stomach contents from a live resident Chinook salmon
Date Published: December 13, 2018
Status: Active

WFRC Ecology Section - Projects Overview

The Ecology Section examines how environmental variability, human activities and infrastructure influence food web interactions and species performance in freshwater and marine ecosystems. We have extensive experience in quantifying aquatic food web processes as they relate to growth, survival and production of key species of interest, especially resident and anadromous salmonids.

Juvenile Chinook scale
Date Published: December 4, 2018
Status: Active

Life History of Pacific Northwest Fishes through Age and Growth Structures

The focus of our research is the ecological analysis of Pacific Northwest fishes through age and growth structures such as: scales, fin rays and otoliths (small calcium carbonate deposits beneath the brain used in hearing and balance that grow in proportion to the overall growth of the fish). These structures are utilized as research tools for understanding life histories and habitat...

Filter Total Items: 142
USGS
January 1, 2019

Floodplain characteristics were quantified for the Elwha River in Olympic National Park, Washington, USA, using orthophoto imagery taken between 1939-2013.

USGS
January 1, 2019

This portion of the USGS data release presents bathymetry data collected during surveys performed in the Columbia River littoral cell, Washington and Oregon in 2018 (USGS Field Activity Number 2018-652-FA). Bathymetry data were collected using four personal watercraft (PWCs) equipped with single-beam sonar systems and global navigation satellite system (GNSS) receivers. The sonar systems consiste

USGS
January 1, 2019

This portion of the USGS data release presents digital elevation models (DEMs) derived from bathymetric and topographic surveys conducted on the Elwha River delta in July 2017 (USGS Field Activity Number 2017-638-FA). Nearshore bathymetry data were collected using two personal watercraft (PWCs) and a kayak equipped with single-beam echosounders and survey-grade global navigation satellite systems

USGS
January 1, 2019

This part of the data release presents bathymetry data from the Elwha River delta collected in July 2017 using two personal watercraft (PWCs). The PWCs were equipped with single beam echosounders and survey-grade global navigation satellite system (GNSS) receivers.

USGS
January 1, 2019

This part of the data release presents topography data from the Elwha River delta collected in July 2017. Topography data were collected on foot with global navigation satellite system (GNSS) receivers mounted on backpacks.

USGS
January 1, 2019

This part of the data release presents bathymetry data from the Elwha River delta collected in July 2017 using a kayak. The kayak was equipped with a single-beam echosounder and a survey-grade global navigation satellite system (GNSS) receiver.

USGS
January 1, 2019

This portion of the USGS data release presents topography data collected during surveys performed in the Columbia River littoral cell, Washington and Oregon, in 2018 (USGS Field Activity Number 2018-652-FA). Topographic profiles were collected by walking along survey lines with global navigation satellite system (GNSS) receivers mounted on backpacks. Prior to data collection, vertical distances b

USGS
January 1, 2019

This portion of the USGS data release presents topography data collected during surveys performed in the Columbia River littoral cell, Washington and Oregon, in 2016 (USGS Field Activity Number 2016-663-FA). Topographic profiles were collected by walking along survey lines with global navigation satellite system (GNSS) receivers mounted on backpacks. Prior to data collection, vertical distances b

USGS
January 1, 2019

This portion of the USGS data release presents topography data collected during surveys performed in the Columbia River littoral cell, Washington and Oregon, in 2017 (USGS Field Activity Number 2017-666-FA). Topographic profiles were collected by walking along survey lines with global navigation satellite system (GNSS) receivers mounted on backpacks. Prior to data collection, vertical distances b

USGS
January 1, 2019

This portion of the USGS data release presents topography data collected during surveys performed in the Columbia River littoral cell, Washington and Oregon, in 2015 (USGS Field Activity Number 2015-647-FA). Topographic profiles were collected by walking along survey lines with global navigation satellite system (GNSS) receivers mounted on backpacks. Prior to data collection, vertical distances b

USGS
January 1, 2019

This portion of the USGS data release presents bathymetry data collected during surveys performed in the Columbia River littoral cell, Washington and Oregon in 2015 (USGS Field Activity Number 2015-647-FA). Bathymetry data were collected using four personal watercraft (PWCs) equipped with single-beam sonar systems and global navigation satellite system (GNSS) receivers. The sonar systems consiste

USGS
January 1, 2019

This portion of the USGS data release presents topography data collected during surveys performed in the Columbia River littoral cell, Washington and Oregon, in 2014 (USGS Field Activity Number 2014-631-FA). Topographic profiles were collected by walking along survey lines with global navigation satellite system (GNSS) receivers mounted on backpacks. Prior to data collection, vertical distances b

Filter Total Items: 710
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Year Published: 2018

Juvenile Chinook salmon and forage fish use of eelgrass habitats in a diked and channelized Puget Sound River Delta

Eelgrass Zostera marina can form extensive meadows on Puget Sound river deltas. The extent to which these meadows provide critical rearing habitat for local estuarine fishes, especially out‐migrating juvenile salmon, is not well understood. Further, delta eelgrass has been impacted by diking and river channelization with unknown...

Rubin, Stephen P.; Hayes, Michael C.; Grossman, Eric E.
Rubin, S.P., M.C. Hayes, and E.E. Grossman. 2018. Juvenile Chinook salmon and forage fish use of eelgrass habitats in a diked and channelized Puget Sound River Delta. Marine Coastal Fisheries: Dynamics, Management, and Ecosystem Science 10:435-451.

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Year Published: 2018

Responses of hatchery‐ and natural‐origin adult spring Chinook Salmon to a trap‐and‐haul reintroduction program

The construction of impassable dams severely affected many Pacific salmon Oncorhynchus spp. populations, resulting in reintroduction efforts that are now focused on returning anadromous fish to areas located upstream of these dams. A primary strategy for moving adult salmon and steelhead O. mykiss around a dam or multiple dams...

Kock, Tobias J.; Perry, Russell W.; Pope, Adam C.; Serl, John D.; Kohn, Mike; Liedtke, Theresa L.
Kock, T.J., R.W. Perry, A.C. Pope, J.D. Serl, M. Kohn, and T.L. Liedtke. 2018. Responses of hatchery‐ and natural‐origin adult spring Chinook salmon to a trap‐and‐haul reintroduction program. N. Am. J. Fish. Manage. (Early View).

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Year Published: 2018

Evaluation of sockeye salmon after passage through an innovative upstream fish-passage system at Cle Elum Dam, Washington, 2017

Executive SummaryThe Bureau of Reclamation (Reclamation) and the Washington State Department of Ecology (Ecology), working with the Yakima River Basin Water Enhancement Project Workgroup (composed of representatives of the Yakama Nation; Federal, State, county, and city governments; environmental organizations; and irrigation districts), developed...

Kock, Tobias J.; Evans, Scott D.; Hansen, Amy C.; Perry, Russell W.; Hansel, Hal C.; Haner, Philip V.; Tomka, Ryan G.
Kock, T.J., Evans, S.D., Hansen, A.C., Perry, R.W., Hansel, H.C., Haner, P.V., and Tomka, R.G., 2018, Evaluation of sockeye salmon after passage through an innovative upstream fish-passage system at Cle Elum Dam, Washington, 2017: U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 2018-1116, 30 p., https://doi.org/10.3133/ofr20181116.

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Year Published: 2018

Geoelectric hazard maps for the Pacific Northwest

Maps of extreme value, horizontal component geoelectric field amplitude are constructed for the Pacific Northwest United States (and parts of neighboring Canada). Multidecade long geoelectric field time series are calculated by convolving Earth surface impedance tensors from 71 discrete magnetotelluric survey sites across the region with...

Love, Jeffrey J.; Lucas, Greg M.; Kelbert, Anna; Bedrosian, Paul A.

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Year Published: 2018

Juvenile salmonid monitoring following removal of Condit Dam in the White Salmon River Watershed, Washington, 2017

Condit Dam, at river kilometer 5.3 on the White Salmon River, Washington, was breached in 2011, and removed completely in 2012, providing anadromous salmonids with the opportunity to recolonize habitat blocked for nearly 100 years. Prior to dam removal, a multi-agency workgroup concluded that the preferred salmonid restoration alternative was to...

Jezorek, Ian G.; Hardiman, Jill M.
Jezorek, I.G., and Hardiman, J.M., 2018, Juvenile salmonid monitoring following removal of Condit Dam in the White Salmon River watershed, Washington, 2017: U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 2018-1106, 31 p. https://doi.org/10.3133/ofr20181106.

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Year Published: 2018

Infection by Nanophyetus salmincola and toxic contaminant exposure in out‐migrating steelhead from Puget Sound, Washington: Implications for early marine survival

Out‐migrating steelhead Oncorhynchus mykiss from four Puget Sound rivers and associated marine basins of Puget Sound in Washington State were examined for the parasite, Nanophyetus salmincola in 2014 to determine whether recent trends in reduced marine survival are associated with the presence of this pathogen. A subset of...

Chen, M.F.; O'Neill, S. M.; Carey, A. J.; Conrad, R. H.; Stewart, B. A.; Snekvik, K. R.; Ylitalo, G. M.; Hershberger, Paul
Chen, M.F., S.M. O’Neill, A.J. Carey, R.H. Conrad, B.A. Stewart, K.R. Snekvik, G.M. Ylitalo, and P.K. Hershberger. 2018. Infection by Nanophyetus salmincola and toxic contaminant exposure in out‐migrating steelhead from Puget Sound, Washington: Implications for early marine survival. J. Aquat Anim Health 30(2): 103-118.

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Year Published: 2018

Effects of experimental removal of Barred Owls on population demography of Northern Spotted Owls in Washington and Oregon—2017 progress report

Populations of Northern Spotted Owls (Strix occidentalis caurina; hereinafter referred to as Spotted Owl) are declining throughout this subspecies’ geographic range. Evidence indicates that competition with invading populations of Barred Owls (S. varia) has contributed significantly to those declines. A pilot study in California showed that...

Wiens, J. David; Dugger, Katie M.; Lesmeister, Damon B.; Dilione, Krista E.; Simon, David C.
Wiens, J.D., Dugger, K.M., Lesmeister, D.B., Dilione, K.E., and Simon, D.C., 2018, Effects of experimental removal of Barred Owls on population demography of Northern Spotted Owls in Washington and Oregon—2017 progress report: U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 2018–1086, 23 p., https://doi.org/10.3133/ofr20181086.

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Year Published: 2018

Distribution and seasonal differences in Pacific Lamprey and Lampetra spp eDNA across 18 Puget Sound watersheds

Lampreys have a worldwide distribution, are functionally important to ecological communities and serve significant roles in many cultures. In Pacific coast drainages of North America, lamprey populations have suffered large declines. However, lamprey population status and trends within many areas of this region are unknown and such information is...

Ostberg, Carl O.; Chase, Dorothy M.; Hayes, Michael C.; Duda, Jeffrey J.
Ostberg, C.O., D.M. Chase, M.C. Hayes, and J.J. Duda. 2018. Distribution and seasonal differences in Pacific Lamprey and Lampetra spp eDNA across 18 Puget Sound watersheds. Peer J 6:e4496.

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Year Published: 2018

Relating river discharge and water temperature to the recruitment of age‐0 White Sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus Richardson, 1836) in the Columbia River using over‐dispersed catch data

The goals were to (i) determine if river discharge and water temperature during various early life history stages were predictors of age‐0 White Sturgeon, Acipenser transmontanus, recruitment, and (ii) provide an example of how over‐dispersed catch data, including data with many zero observations, can be used to better understand the effects...

Counihan, Timothy D.; Chapman, Colin G.
Counihan, T.D. and C.G. Chapman. 2018. Relating river discharge and water temperature to the recruitment of age-0 White Sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus Richardson, 1836) in the Columbia River using over-dispersed catch data. J. Appl. Ichthyol. 34(2):279-289.

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Year Published: 2018

An epidemiological model of virus transmission in salmonid fishes of the Columbia River Basin

We have developed a dynamic epidemiological model informed by records of viral presence and genotypes to evaluate potential transmission routes maintaining a viral pathogen in economically and culturally important anadromous fish populations. In the Columbia River Basin, infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV) causes severe disease,...

Ferguson, Paige F. B.; Breyta, Rachel; Brito, Ilana L.; Kurath, Gael; LaDeau, Shannon L.
Ferguson, P.F.B., R. Breyta, I. Brito, G. Kurath, and S.L. LaDeau. 2018. An epidemiological model of virus transmission in salmonid fishes of the Columbia River Basin. Ecol. Model. 377: 1-15.

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Year Published: 2018

Passage survival of juvenile steelhead, coho salmon, and Chinook salmon in Lake Scanewa and at Cowlitz Falls Dam, Cowlitz River, Washington, 2010–16

A multi-year evaluation was conducted during 2010–16 to evaluate passage survival of juvenile steelhead (Oncorhynchus mykiss), Chinook salmon (O. tshawytscha), and coho salmon (O. kisutch) in Lake Scanewa, and at Cowlitz Falls Dam in the upper Cowlitz River Basin, Washington. Reservoir passage survival was evaluated in 2010, 2011, and 2016, and...

Liedtke, Theresa L.; Kock, Tobias J.; Hurst, William
Liedtke, T.L., Kock, T.J., and Hurst, W., 2018, Passage survival of juvenile steelhead, coho salmon, and Chinook salmon in Lake Scanewa and at Cowlitz Falls Dam, Cowlitz River, Washington, 2010–16: U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 2018-1050, 44 p., https://doi.org/10.3133/ofr20181050.

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Year Published: 2018

Size, growth, and size‐selective mortality of subyearling Chinook Salmon during early marine residence in Puget Sound

In marine ecosystems, survival can be heavily influenced by size‐selective mortality during juvenile life stages. Understanding how and when size‐selective mortality operates on a population can reveal underlying growth dynamics and size‐selective ecological processes affecting the population and thus can be used to guide conservation efforts. For...

Gamble, Madilyn M.; Connelly, Kristin A.; Gardner, Jennifer R.; Chamberlin, Joshua W.; Warheit, Kenneth I.; Beauchamp, David A.
Gamble, M.M., K.A. Connelly, J.R. Gardner, J.W. Chamberlin, K.I. Warheit, and D.A. Beauchamp. 2018. Size, growth, and size-selective mortality of subyearling Chinook salmon during early marine residence in Puget Sound. Trans. Am. Fish. Soc. 147(2): 370-389.

Filter Total Items: 857
Image from an application that navigates users through USGS National Oil and Gas Assessment Provinces
November 14, 2018

National Oil and Gas Assessment Provinces

This is a graphic from the USGS National Oil and Gas Assessment Explorer application, which allows user to drill into 70 oil and gas assessment provinces throughout the United States.

November 2, 2018

Image of the Week - Elwha River Dam Removal

In September 2011, the largest dam removal project in U.S. history began. 

Two dams built on the Elwha River in the early 1900s created two reservoirs in northwestern Washington. They also greatly reduced the amount of sediment flowing to the river’s delta and blocked salmon migration upstream into Olympic National Park.

Each week, the Earth Resources

...
Juga sp. snails
October 17, 2018

Juga sp. snails

Juga sp. snails, the molluscan intermediate host for Nanophyetus salmincola, populate the bottom of a stream bed in a south Puget Sound watershed.

Landscape photo of mountains in distance with low clouds filling valley in mid-ground and pine tress on slope in foreground
October 10, 2018

Sunrise at Mount St. Helens

The sun rises at Mount St. Helens (pictured in the distance), with low-level clouds covering Coldwater Lake. The view is from the Coldwater Science and Learning Center, the site of the 2018 GeoGirls field camp program.

Map of study area
September 27, 2018

Map of study area that includes the states of ID, MT, OR, WA

Map of the study area that includes the states of Idaho, Montana, Oregon, and Washington. The Columbia and Snake rivers are the two largest rivers in the Columbia River Basin which is shown as a shaded area on the map.

September 25, 2018

First mission: USGS UAS monitors gas emissions at Mount St. Helens

On September 25, 2018, a team of three scientists based at the USGS–Cascades Volcano Observatory conducted the first-ever USGS-led Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS) campaign at Mount St. Helens. The UAS survey was conducted with the permission and coordination of the U.S. Forest Service Mount St. Helens National Volcanic Monument.

The team used a multi-rotor UAS (“

...
September 25, 2018

First mission: USGS UAS monitors gas emissions at Mount St. Helens —AD

On September 25, 2018, a team of three scientists based at the USGS–Cascades Volcano Observatory conducted the first-ever USGS-led Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS) campaign at Mount St. Helens. The UAS survey was conducted with the permission and coordination of the U.S. Forest Service Mount St. Helens National Volcanic Monument.

The team used a multi-rotor UAS (“

...
View looks down on a river from behind a metal fence, and the image is time-stamped to show it's a web camera from the USGS.
September 24, 2018

Diversion web cam on the Elwha River

Web cam mounted near USGS gaging station site number 12046260, looking upstream from the water supply diversion structure on the lower Elwha River near Port Angeles in Washington.

Figure 1. A map of the project area
September 12, 2018

Figure 1. A map of the project area and the three study reaches

Figure 1. A map of the project area and the three study reaches: Skamania (SK), John Day (JD), and Kootenai (KO).

Flushing stomach contents from a live resident Chinook salmon
September 6, 2018

Flushing stomach contents from a live resident Chinook salmon

Flushing stomach contents from a live resident Chinook salmon for an investigation of cannibalism and predation impacts.

Gills from Lost Rver suckers with a heavy infestation of Ichthyobodo sp. (arrows)
August 22, 2018

Gills from Lost River Suckers - Heavy Infestation of Ichthyobodo sp.

Gills from Lost River suckers with a heavy infestation of Ichthyobodo sp. (arrows).  Slide is stained with hematoxylin and eosin.

Herring (top) and juvenile Chinook salmon (bottom)
August 14, 2018

Herring (top) and juvenile Chinook salmon (bottom)

Herring (top) and juvenile Chinook salmon (bottom) flushed from the stomach of a resident Chinook salmon in Puget Sound.

Filter Total Items: 344
Issue7.2February2019NLThumb
February 14, 2019

Identifying Habitat Characteristics for Successful White Sturgeon Recruitment in the Columbia River Basin

Image: Cascades Frog
February 1, 2019

In montane ecosystems of the U.S. Pacific Northwest, increasing temperatures are resulting in a transition from snow-dominated to rain-dominated precipitation events, reducing snowpack.

Mean annual streamflow permanence probability
December 21, 2018

An interdisciplinary team comprised of USGS and university scientists has developed the Probability of Streamflow Permanence Model or PROSPER which predicts flow permanence for unregulated and minimally impaired streams in the Pacific Northwest.

mountains and cloud covered valley
November 30, 2018

The USGS and National Park Service (NPS) have published the first Natural Resource Condition Assessment for Olympic National Park. A Natural Resource Condition Assessment, or NRCA, is a report that evaluates a subset of important natural resources in a NPS Unit. 

Underwater photo of a rocky outcrop with many multicolored corals growing on it.
November 29, 2018

Researchers from the USGS Pacific Coastal and Marine Science Center (PCMSC) participated in a research cruise to survey deep-water coral, sponge, and fish habitats off U.S. West Coast.

two teenage girls facing camera, one flashing peace sign. Outdoors
October 15, 2018

Mount St. Helens volcano loomed in the distance as 25 middle-school “GeoGirls” signed in, received a name tag, dropped their overnight gear and gathered in a grassy open space to meet camp staff, women scientists and volunteers.

Coho salmon
September 14, 2018

USGS researchers are assessing habitat condition, watershed processes, and coho salmon populations in the context of land management and restoration activities.

View from the top deck of a ship on water, looking down on the bow with three people standing, with a bridge in the background.
September 7, 2018

From July 31 to August 23, a joint USGS-NOAA cruise mapped seafloor depths, texture, and gas seeps in the Cascadia subduction zone offshore of Washington, Oregon, and northern California.

animated satellite images showing sediment outflow over time from Elwha River
September 5, 2018

Starting in 2011, the National Park Service removed two obsolete dams from the Elwha River in Olympic National Park, Washington. It was the world’s largest dam-removal project. Over the next five years, water carrying newly freed rocks, sand, silt and old tree trunks reshaped more than 13 miles of river and built a larger delta into the Pacific Ocean.

animated satellite images showing sediment outflow over time from Elwha River
September 4, 2018

Starting in 2011, the National Park Service removed two obsolete dams, the world’s largest dam-removal project to date. Over the next five years, water carrying newly freed rocks, sand, silt, and old tree trunks reshaped more than 13 miles of river and built a larger delta into the Pacific Ocean.

Lava dome within the Mount St Helens' crater, 1980-86 (right) and t...
September 3, 2018

The atypical location of Mount St. Helens may be due to geologic structures that control where deep magmas can rise through the crust, as suggested by new findings published today in Nature Geoscience.

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