Overview of MODFLOW-NWT
The USGS MODFLOW-NWT is a Newton-Raphson formulation for MODFLOW-2005 to improve solution of unconfined groundwater-flow problems. MODFLOW-NWT is a standalone program that is intended for solving problems involving drying and rewetting nonlinearities of the unconfined groundwater-flow equation.
MODFLOW-NWT must be used with the Upstream-Weighting (UPW) Package for calculating intercell conductances in a different manner than is done in the Block-Centered Flow (BCF), Layer Property Flow (LPF), or Hydrogeologic-Unit Flow (HUF) Packages. Flow-property input for the UPW Package is designed based on the LPF Package and material-property input is identical to that for the LPF Package except that the rewetting and vertical-conductance correction options of the LPF Package are not available with the UPW Package. Input files constructed for the LPF Package can be used with slight modification as input for the UPW Package.
The NWT linearization approach generates an asymmetric matrix, which is different from the standard MODFLOW formulation that generates a symmetric matrix. Because all linear solvers presently available for use with MODFLOW-2005 solve only symmetric matrices, MODFLOW-NWT includes two previously developed asymmetric matrix-solver options. The matrix-solver options include a generalized-minimum-residual (GMRES) Solver and an Orthomin / stabilized conjugate-gradient (CGSTAB) Solver.
MODFLOW-NWT is described in the documentation report by Niswonger and others (2011). The Surface-Water Routing (SWR1) and Seawater Intrusion (SWI2) Packages, which are included with MODFLOW-NWT are documented in Hughes and others (2012) and Bakker and others (2013), respectively.
Download Current Version of MODFLOW-NWT
- Summary of MODFLOW-NWT [8KB TXT]
- Installation instructions [ 11KB TXT]
- Release history [ 69KB TXT]
- MODFLOW-NWT v.1.2.0 (released 3/3/2020) compiled for Microsoft Windows, with source code, test problems, and documentation [ 419.3MB ZIP]
Documentation for MODFLOW-NWT
- Niswonger, R.G., Panday, Sorab, and Ibaraki, Motomu, 2011, MODFLOW-NWT, A Newton formulation for MODFLOW-2005: U.S. Geological Survey Techniques and Methods 6-A37, 44 p., https://doi.org/10.3133/tm6A45
This report describes the theory and input instructions at the time of the initial MODFLOW-NWT v1.00 release.
- Online MODFLOW-NWT User's Guide
The User's Guide is not a tutorial and is primarily intended for those already familiar with MODFLOW-NWT. The Guide includes the most up-to-date instructions and related information for the current release of MODFLOW-NWT. The Guide can be used as a quick way of looking up input formats and USGS options available.
- Hughes, J.D., Langevin, C.D., Chartier, K.L., and White, J.T., 2012, Documentation of the Surface-Water Routing (SWR1) Process for modeling surface-water flow with the U.S. Geological Survey Modular Ground-Water Model (MODFLOW-2005): U.S. Geological Survey Techniques and Methods, book 6, chap. A40 (Version 1.0), 113 p.
- Additional information and resources on the SWR Process for MODFLOW
- Bakker, Mark, Schaars, Frans, Hughes, J.D., Langevin, C.D., and Dausman, A.M., 2013, Documentation of the seawater intrusion (SWI2) package for MODFLOW: U.S. Geological Survey Techniques and Methods, book 6, chap. A46, 47 p.
- Niswonger, R. G. (2020). An Agricultural Water Use Package for MODFLOW and GSFLOW. Environmental Modelling & Software, 104617. https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1364815219305080
Additional documentation can be found in the 'doc' subdirectory in the MODFLOW-2005 distribution.
Find MODFLOW-Related Software
Visit the MODFLOW and Related Programs page for a list of MODFLOW-related software.
Example USGS Applications of MODFLOW-NWT
Allander, K.K., Niswonger, R.N., and Jeton, A.E., 2014, Simulation of the Lower Walker River Basin hydrologic system, west-central Nevada, Using PRMS and MODFLOW models: U.S. Geological Survey Scientific Investigations Report 2014-5190, 93 p., httphttps://dx.doi.org/10.3133/sir20145190://dx.doi.org/10.3133/sir20145190.
Davis, K.W., and Putnam, L.D., 2013, Conceptual and numerical models of groundwater flow in the Ogallala aquifer in Gregory and Tripp Counties, South Dakota, water years 1985-2009: U.S. Geological Survey Scientific Investigations Report 2013-5069, 82 p.
Eggleston, J.R., Carlson, C.S., Fairchild, G.M., and Zarriello, P.J., 2012, Simulation of groundwater and surface-water interaction and effects of pumping in a complex glacial-sediment aquifer, east central Massachusetts: U.S. Geological Survey Scientific Investigations Report 2012-5172, 48 p.
Feinstein, D.T., Fienen, M.N., Kennedy, J.L., Buchwald, C.A., and Greenwood, M.M., 2012, Development and application of a groundwater/surface-water flow model using MODFLOW-NWT for the Upper Fox River Basin, southeastern Wisconsin: U.S. Geological Survey Scientific Investigations Report 2012-5108, 124 p.
Huntington, J.L. and Niswonger, R.G., 2012, Role of surface-water and groundwater interactions on projected summertime streamflow in snow dominated regions: An integrated modeling approach: Water Resources Research, v. 48, 20 p.
Kennedy, J. R. and FerrÃ©, T. P., 2016, Accounting for time-and space-varying changes in the gravity field to improve the network adjustment of relative-gravity data: Geophysical Journal International, vol. 204, no. 2, pp. 892-906, http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/gji/ggv493.
Morway, E.D., Gates, T.K., Niswonger, R.G., 2013, Appraising options to reduce shallow groundwater tables and enhance flow conditions over regional scales in an irrigated alluvial aquifer system: Journal of Hydrology, v. 495, pp. 216-237.
Morway, E. D., Niswonger, R. G., and Triana, E., 2016, Toward improved simulation of river operations through integration with a hydrologic model: Environmental Modelling & Software, v. 82, pp. 255-274, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.envsoft.2016.04.018
Niswonger, R.G., Allander, K.K., and Jeton, A.E., 2014, Collaborative modelling and integrated decision support system analysis of a developed terminal lake basin: Journal of Hydrology, doi: 10.1016/j.jhydrol.2014.05.043. Avalaible online at http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0022169414004077
Tanvir Hassan, S.M., Lubczynski, M.W., Niswonger, R G., and Su, Z., 2014, Surface-groundwater interactions in hard rocks in Sardon Catchment of Western Spain: an integrated modeling approach: Journal of Hydrology, doi: 10.1016/j.jhydrol.2014.05.026. Avalaible online at http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0022169414003904