Unified Interior Regions

Alaska

The Alaska Region represents a resource-rich, dynamic landscape shaped by volcanos, earthquakes, major rivers, and glaciers. Here, we conduct research to inform management of Alaska’s extensive natural resources, inform national Arctic energy policy, and provide scientific information to help others understand, respond to, and mitigate impacts from natural hazards.

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Filter Total Items: 204
Date published: September 9, 2019
Status: Active

Tracking Data for Blue-winged Teal (Anas discors)

Available here are tracking data of Blue-winged Teal, a duck species that breeds throughout much of North America and whose wintering range includes neotropical areas of the Caribbean and Central and South America, thus providing a migratory link between the continents of North and South America. These data were collected to better understand the timing and patterns of migratory movement of...

Date published: September 5, 2019
Status: Active

Tracking Data for Northern Pintails (Anas acuta)

Available here are tracking data of Northern Pintails, a duck species that, in Alaska, nests throughout the state and in adjacent regions of Russia and Canada. These data were collected to better understand the timing and patterns of migratory movements of Northern Pintails from wintering grounds in Japan as part of a project on the possible spread of Eurasian forms of avian influenza to North...

Date published: September 5, 2019
Status: Active

Tracking Data for Red-throated Loons (Gavia stellata)

Available here are tracking data of Red-throated Loons, a species that breeds in coastal areas throughout Alaska and winters along the Pacific coasts of North America and Eurasia. These data were collected to better understand the patterns of migratory movements and seasonal use of different regions of Alaska.

Date published: August 21, 2019
Status: Completed

Potential Landslide Paths and Implications for Tsunami Hazards in Glacier Bay, Alaska – An Initial Investigation

Glacier Bay and its inlets are a popular destination for cruise ships and passenger boats; about 540,000 people visited Glacier Bay National Park and Preserve (GBNPP) in 2017. A typical tour of the Bay traverses the entire length up to the glacier calving viewpoints in the Johns Hopkins and Tarr Inlets.  A 2018 article “Landslides and Giant Waves” by the National Park Service (NPS) states, “...

Date published: July 31, 2019
Status: Active

USGS Alaska Science Center Wildlife Tracking Data Collection

Understanding the short- and long-distance movements of wildlife is critical for a wide variety of ecological research questions and management decisions. Since the mid-1980s, the USGS Alaska Science Center has used information from telemetry devices on wildlife species to determine locations of animals throughout their annual cycles, understand patterns of habitat use, quantify time spent on...

Date published: July 22, 2019
Status: Active

Tracking Data for Marbled Godwits (Limosa fedoa)

Available here are tracking data of Marbled Godwits, a large-bodied shorebird that, in Alaska, nests in the southwestern portion of the state. These data were collected to better understand the timing and patterns of migratory movements and seasonal use of different coastal areas in the Pacific region.

Date published: July 11, 2019
Status: Active

Harmful Algal Bloom Toxins in Alaska Seabirds

Elevated ocean temperatures are linked to the development of harmful algal blooms (HABs). Toxins from these blooms may pose health threats to marine organisms, including seabirds. Since 2015, the USGS has worked with a variety of stakeholders to develop testing methods and research projects to better understand the geographic extent, timing and impacts of algal toxins in Alaska marine...

Date published: June 28, 2019
Status: Active

Seismic Seiches

Definition of seismic seiches and examples dating back to their first public mention in 1755.

Date published: June 26, 2019
Status: Active

Information by Region-Alaska

  

Date published: June 19, 2019
Status: Active

Spatial and Temporal Maps of Population Change of Waterbirds on Alaska's North Slope

A main objective of the USGS Changing Arctic Research Initiative is to quantify and provide projections of the responses of wildlife species and their habitats to ecosystem change in the Arctic.  The following project provides information for Department of Interior agencies, industry, and other stakeholders related to this objective.

Date published: June 17, 2019
Status: Active

Climate Change on U.S. Arctic Ocean Margins

Arctic Alaska is warming faster than the rest of the United States. A major consequence of this warming is permafrost thaw, which threatens infrastructure, alters habitat, increases fire risk, changes nutrient and sediment delivery to the coastal ocean, and enhances greenhouse gas release. The warming climate has already dramatically reduced the thickness and annual duration of sea ice,...

Date published: June 17, 2019
Status: Active

Landslide-Induced Tsunamis of Southern Alaska

Working with partners to study and inform the Nation about geohazard risks

Filter Total Items: 201
Date published: July 1, 2020

Temporal Viral Viability Data from Avian Influenza A Viruses Maintained in North American Wetlands Under Experimental and Environmental Conditions

Data sets containing: (1) sample collection and influenza A virus (IAV) screening information for wild ducks, (2) water temperature data for six North American wetlands, (3) water quality measurement from those wetlands, (4) laboratory-based study of viral viability using Minnesota wetland water, (5) naive mallards challenged experimentally with IAVs identified f

Date published: June 26, 2020

Bouguer gravity and magnetic susceptibility measurements at Iliamna Volcano, Alaska 2019

Gravity data were collected in August of 2019 at 21 sites on and around Iliamna Volcano and Anchorage, Alaska. Measurements were taken with a Lacoste & Romberg G-161 meter and reduced to obtain the complete Bouguer anomaly. A total of 39 magnetic susceptibility measurements were taken at 13 locations using a ZH Instruments SM30 susceptibility meter. This data release includes...

Date published: June 26, 2020

Argos GPS Satellite Tracking Data for Three Large-Bodied Gull Species and Hybrids (Larus spp.) - Processed Data

This metadata document describes the data contained in the "processedData" folder of this data package. This data package contains all data collected from 42 Argos-linked GPS satellite transmitters attached to three species of large-bodied gulls (genus Larus) and hybrids thereof, captured at landfills in southcentral, western and northern Alaska. The transmitters carried GPS receivers

Date published: June 26, 2020

Argos GPS Satellite Tracking Data for Three Large-Bodied Gull Species and Hybrids (Larus spp.) - Raw Data

This metadata document describes the data contained in the "rawData" folder of this data package. This data package contains all data collected from 42 Argos-linked GPS satellite transmitters attached to three species of large-bodied gulls (genus Larus) and hybrids thereof, captured at landfills in southcentral, western and northern Alaska. The transmitters carried GPS receivers, so

Date published: June 25, 2020

Buff-breasted Sandpiper (Calidris subruficollis) Measurement Data from Brazil, Texas, and Alaska

This data consists of a single table morphologic measurement data and sex as determined by behavior and genetic techniques from 362 Buff-breasted Sandpipers (Calidris subruficollis) from Brazil, Texas and Alaska (1994 - 2017).

Date published: June 23, 2020

Global Geochemical Database for Critical Minerals in Archived Mine Samples

The Critical Minerals in Archived Mine Samples Database (CMDB) contains chemistry and geologic information for historic ore and ore-related rock samples from mineral deposits in the United States. In addition, the database contains samples from archetypal deposits from 27 other countries in North America, South America, Asia, Africa and Europe. Samples were obtained from archived ore

Date published: June 15, 2020

U-Pb Isotopic Data and Ages of Titanite and Detrital Zircon from Selected Rocks from the Western Alaska Range, Alaska

This data set contains U-Pb isotopic data and associated ages of
titanite from one sample and detrital zircon grains from 33
sedimentary and metasedimentary rocks collected from the western
Alaska Range in south-central Alaska. The samples were collected as
part of geological mapping and research conducted between 2010 and
2014 and funded by the Mineral Resources...

Date published: June 12, 2020

Multistate Capture and Search Data from the Southern Beaufort Sea Polar Bear Subpopulation in Alaska, 2001-2016

This data release contains two tables of information on polar bear distributions in the southern Beaufort Sea during spring, from 2001 to 2016. One table provides location (classified into 5 broad regions) of individual bears during the spring. The other table presents the aerial search effort by year and area.

Date published: June 3, 2020

Water Surfaces Elevations During an Outburst Flood from Pressure Transducers at Snow River, Alaska, 2019

This dataset includes locations, pressure readings, and baro-corrected water surface elevations from three submersible pressure transducers deployed in the channel and floodplain of Snow River during the 2019 glacial lake outburst flood.

Date published: May 20, 2020

Nesting Habitat and Nest Survival Data for American (Pluvialis dominica) and Pacific (P. fulva) Golden-Plovers on the Seward Peninsula, Alaska, 2012−2013

This data set contains information (in two tables) on nesting habitat and nest survival for American (Pluvialis dominica) and Pacific (P. fulva) Golden-Plovers monitored at seven study sites across an elevational gradient (28−416 m) on the Seward Peninsula in northwestern Alaska during the summers of 2012 and 2013. We used principal components analysis to reduce habitat me

Date published: May 13, 2020

Sea Otter Aerial Survey Data from Southeast Alaska, 2002-2003

The data package "Sea Otter Aerial Survey Data from Southeast Alaska, 2002-2003" provides raw data for examining abundance and distribution of northern sea otters (Enhydra lutris kenyoni) in Southeast Alaska, based on data collected during a series of population-wide aerial surveys. The USGS aerial sea otter surveys have been completed multiple times using consistent methodology invol

Date published: May 4, 2020

Habitat Selection Scenarios for Molting Waterfowl in the Goose Molting Area of the Teshekpuk Lake Special Area, for NPR-A Integrated Activity Plan/Environmental Impact Statement (2020)

The dataset consists of a polygon shapefile. Each polygon represents a set of molt units (interconnected lakes used as habitat by molting waterfowl) within the Goose Molting Area of the Teshekpuk Lake Special Area in northern Alaska, in addition to a half-mile or 1-mile wide buffer, that were selected for restrictions on new surface occupancy or infrastructure development by the oil and g

Filter Total Items: 136
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Year Published: 2016

The geochemical atlas of Alaska, 2016

A rich legacy of geochemical data produced since the early 1960s covers the great expanse of Alaska; careful treatment of such data may provide significant and revealing geochemical maps that may be used for landscape geochemistry, mineral resource exploration, and geoenvironmental investigations over large areas. To maximize the spatial density...

Lee, Gregory K.; Yager, Douglas B.; Mauk, Jeffrey L.; Granitto, Matthew; Denning, Paul; Wang, Bronwen; Werdon, Melanie B.
Lee, G.K., Yager, D.B., Mauk, J.L, Granitto, Matthew, Denning, P.D., Wang, Bronwen, and Werdon, M.B., 2016, The Geochemical Atlas of Alaska, 2016: U.S. Geological Survey Data Series 908, 25 p., 272 sheets (11"×17"), GIS database, http://dx.doi.org/10.3133/ds908.

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Year Published: 2016

Historical files from Federal Government mineral exploration-assistance programs, 1950 to 1974

The Defense Minerals Administration (DMA), Defense Minerals Exploration Administration (DMEA), and Office of Minerals Exploration (OME) mineral exploration programs were active over the period 1950–1974. Under these programs, the Federal Government contributed financial assistance in the exploration for certain strategic and critical minerals. The...

Frank, David G.
Frank, D.G., 2016, Historical files from Federal Government mineral exploration-assistance programs, 1950 to 1974: U.S. Geological Survey Data Series 1004, http://dx.doi.org/10.3133/ds1004.

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Year Published: 2016

Baseline and projected future carbon storage and greenhouse-gas fluxes in ecosystems of Alaska

This assessment was conducted to fulfill the requirements of section 712 of the Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007 and to contribute to knowledge of the storage, fluxes, and balance of carbon and methane gas in ecosystems of Alaska. The carbon and methane variables were examined for major terrestrial ecosystems (uplands and wetlands) and...

Zhu, Zhiliang; McGuire, A. David
Zhu, Zhiliang, and McGuire, A.D., eds., 2016, Baseline and projected future carbon storage and greenhouse-gas fluxes in ecosystems of Alaska: U.S. Geological Survey Professional Paper 1826, 196 p., http://dx.doi.org/10.3133/pp1826.

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Year Published: 2016

Extending Alaska's plate boundary: tectonic tremor generated by Yakutat subduction

The tectonics of the eastern end of the Alaska-Aleutian subduction zone are complicated by the inclusion of the Yakutat microplate, which is colliding into and subducting beneath continental North America at near-Pacific-plate rates. The interaction among these plates at depth is not well understood, and further east, even less is known about the...

Wech, Aaron G.

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Year Published: 2016

A possible transoceanic tsunami directed toward the U.S. west coast from the Semidi segment, Alaska convergent margin

The Semidi segment of the Alaska convergent margin appears capable of generating a giant tsunami like the one produced along the nearby Unimak segment in 1946. Reprocessed legacy seismic reflection data and a compilation of multibeam bathymetric surveys reveal structures that could generate such a tsunami. A 200 km long ridge or escarpment with...

von Huene, Roland E.; Miller, John J.; Dartnell, Peter
von Huene, Roland, John J. Miller, and Peter Dartnell, 2015, A Possible Transoceanic Tsunami Directed toward the U.S. West Coast from the Semidi Segment, Alaska Convergent Margin: Geochemistry, Geophysics, Geosystems, v. 17 i. 3, pp. 645-659, doi:10.1002/2015GC006147.

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Year Published: 2016

Postseismic gravity change after the 2006–2007 great earthquake doublet and constraints on the asthenosphere structure in the central Kuril Islands

Large earthquakes often trigger viscoelastic adjustment for years to decades depending on the rheological properties and the nature and spatial extent of coseismic stress. The 2006 Mw8.3 thrust and 2007 Mw8.1 normal fault earthquakes of the central Kuril Islands resulted in significant postseismic gravity change in Gravity Recovery and Climate...

Han, Shin-Chan; Sauber, Jeanne; Pollitz, Fred

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Year Published: 2016

Apatite fission-track evidence for regional exhumation in the subtropical Eocene, block faulting, and localized fluid flow in east-central Alaska

The origin and antiquity of the subdued topography of the Yukon–Tanana Upland (YTU), the physiographic province between the Denali and Tintina faults, are unresolved questions in the geologic history of interior Alaska and adjacent Yukon. We present apatite fission-track (AFT) results for 33 samples from the 2300 km2 western Fortymile...

Dusel-Bacon, Cynthia; Bacon, Charles R.; O'Sullivan, Paul B.; Day, Warren C.
Dusel-Bacon, C., Bacon, C.R., O’Sullivan, P.B., and Day, W.C., 2016, Apatite fission-track evidence for regional exhumation in the subtropical Eocene, block faulting, and localized fluid flow in east-central Alaska. Canadian Journal of Earth Sciences, v.53, p. 260–280, dx.doi.org/10.1139/cjes-2015-0138. http://www.nrcresearchpress.com/doi/pdf/10.1139/cjes-2015-0138

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Year Published: 2016

Improved geomagnetic referencing in the Arctic environment

Geomagnetic referencing uses the Earth’s magnetic field to determine accurate wellbore positioning essential for success in today's complex drilling programs, either as an alternative or a complement to north-seeking gyroscopic referencing. However, fluctuations in the geomagnetic field, especially at high latitudes, make the application of...

Poedjono, B.; Beck, N.; Buchanan, A. C.; Borri, L.; Maus, S.; Finn, Carol; Worthington, E. William; White, Tim
Poedjono, B., Beck, N., Buchanan, A.,Buchanan, A., Borri, L., Maus, S., Finn, C. A., Worthington, E. W. & White, T., 2013. Improved geomagnetic referencing in the Arctic environment, SPE-166850-MS, SPE Arctic and Extreme Environments Technical Conference and Exhibition, 15-17 October, Moscow, Russia, doi:10.2118/166850-MS.

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Year Published: 2016

Unusually large tsunamis frequent a currently creeping part of the Aleutian megathrust

Current models used to assess earthquake and tsunami hazards are inadequate where creep dominates a subduction megathrust. Here we report geological evidence for large tsunamis, occurring on average every 300–340 years, near the source areas of the 1946 and 1957 Aleutian tsunamis. These areas bookend a postulated seismic gap over 200 km long...

Witter, Robert C.; Carver, G.A.; Briggs, Richard W.; Gelfenbaum, Guy R.; Koehler, R.D.; La Selle, SeanPaul M.; Bender, Adrian M.; Engelhart, S.E.; Hemphill-Haley, E.; Hill, Troy D.

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Year Published: 2015

Paleoseismology of the Denali fault system at the Schist Creek site, central Alaska

Two hand-dug trenches at the Schist Creek site on the Denali fault system in central Alaska exposed evidence of four surface-rupturing earthquakes on the basis of upward terminations of fault strands and at least one buried, scarp-derived colluvial wedge. Limited radiocarbon ages provide some constraints on times of the ruptures. The youngest...

Personius, Stephen F.; Crone, Anthony J.; Burns, Patricia A.C.; Rozell, Ned
Personius, S.F., Crone, A.J., Burns, P.A.C, and Rozell, Ned, 2015, Paleoseismology of the Denali fault system at the Schist Creek site, central Alaska: U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 2015-1225, 15 p., 1 oversize plate, http://dx.doi.org/10.3133/ofr20151225.

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Year Published: 2015

Geologic map of Alaska

Summary This map and associated digital databases are the result of compilation and interpretation of published and unpublished 1:250,000-scale and limited 1:500,000- to 1:63,360-scale maps. Covering the entire state of Alaska, it reflects more than a century of work by a host of geologists and almost two decades of compilation work. There are two...

Wilson, Frederic H.; Hults, Chad P.; Mull, Charles G.; Karl, Susan M.
Wilson, F.H., Hults, C.P., Mull, C.G, and Karl, S.M, comps., 2015, Geologic map of Alaska: U.S. Geological Survey Scientific Investigations Map 3340, pamphlet 196 p., 2 sheets, scale 1:1,584,000, http://dx.doi.org/10.3133/sim3340.

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Year Published: 2015

Field guide to the Mesozoic arc and accretionary complex of South-Central Alaska, Indian to Hatcher Pass

This field trip traverses exposures of a multi-generation Mesozoic magmatic arc and subduction-accretion complex that had a complicated history of magmatic activity and experienced variations in composition and deformational style in response to changes in the tectonic environment. This Mesozoic arc formed at an unknown latitude to the south, was...

Karl, Susan M.; Oswald, P.J.; Hults, Chad P.
Karl, S. M., P. J. Oswald, and C. P. Hults. 2015. Field guide to the Mesozoic arc and accretionary complex of South-Central Alaska, Indian to Hatcher Pass. Alaska Geological Society:1-65.

Filter Total Items: 1,086
A polar bear print in mud with a person's hand next to it.
September 30, 2019

Polar bear print

Cordell Johnson holds his hand next to a polar bear's footprint.

View from above looking back at a coastal bluff where large sections have collapsed and crumbled onto the beach.
September 30, 2019

Oblique view of Barter Island bluffs

Example of a high-oblique photograph taken with an unmanned aerial system (UAS), or drone, of the coastal bluffs of Barter Island on North Slope of Alaska. The photographs from different time periods can be compared, using a technique called structure-from-motion photogrammetry, to measure changes in the coastal bluffs. This area of Alaska is experiencing very high rates

...
View looking at a coastal bluff where a large chunk has collapsed onto the beach.
September 30, 2019

Low-oblique view of Barter Island bluffs

Example of a low-oblique photograph taken with an unmanned aerial system (UAS), or drone, of the coastal bluffs of Barter Island on North Slope of Alaska. The photographs from different time periods can be compared, using a technique called structure-from-motion photogrammetry, to measure changes in the coastal bluffs. This area of Alaska is experiencing very high rates of

...
Thermal photograph of a coastal bluff where two people can be seen standing and waving.
September 30, 2019

Thermal photograph of Barter Island bluffs

Example of a thermal photograph of Barter Island's bluffs, on the North Slope of Alaska. Two USGS scientists stand waving on the right side of the photo. Lighter areas are warmer, darker areas are colder. Thermal photography makes it easy to detect areas of permafrost, or the lack thereof.

A person stands on tundra at the edge of a cliff that has gigantic chunks of eroded blocks tumbled down onto the beach.
September 30, 2019

Large blocks of failed coastal bluff on Barter Island

Large blocks of coastal bluff tumble down onto the beach of Barter Island, on the North Slope of Alaska.

A person rides an ATV on a beach alongside gigantic chunks of coastal bluff that have fallen onto the beach.
September 30, 2019

Coastal bluffs collapsed onto the beach

Gigantic chunks of perafrost coastal bluffs tumbled down onto the beach along Barter Island on the North Slope of Alaska. A USGS scientist drives past them, seeking good locations to place instruments and markers that will be used in photographic analysis.

An instrument with propellers, about the size of a large pizza box, stands on four legs on bare ground.
September 30, 2019

USGS PCMSC UAS

An remotely piloted aircraft (RPA) or drone, equipped with a camera, sits on the Arctic tundra awaiting a radio signal that tells it to fly.

forage species caught in trawl net, Alaska
September 23, 2019

Forage species caught in trawl net, Prince William Sound, Alaska

Squid, adult walleye pollock, herring, eulachon, northern smoothtongue, capelin, juvenile walleye pollock, krill, and shrimp are forage species that are caught by a modified-herring trawl in Prince William Sound, Alaska during the Fall Integrated Predator-Prey Survey.

Sending the trawl net overboard, Alaska
September 19, 2019

Sending the trawl overboard, Prince William Sound, Alaska

Caitlin Marsteller (USGS) and April Sturgess (USGS) throw the cod end of the modified herring trawl overboard on the USGS R/V Alaskan Gyre during the Fall Integrated Predator-Prey survey in Prince William Sound, Alaska.

Keychain for USGS outreach activities about bird banding and reporting
September 17, 2019

Keychain for USGS outreach activities about bird banding and reporting

Keychain developed for USGS outreach activities about bird banding and reporting in Yup'ik and English. Yup'ik translation provided by Jakob Sipary, Alaska Native Science and Engineering Program (ANSEP).

Please see description for full content of infographic
September 10, 2019

Gas Hydrates in Alaska 2019

The Alaska North Slope is rich in gas hydrate-bearing formations which contain significant natural gas resources. The USGS has released a geologically based assessment for how much of these resources is technically recoverable.

53.8 trillion cubic feet
Estimate of the undiscovered technically recoverable amount of natural gas that is stored in

...
exposed ablation stake in the fall at Wolverine Glacier
September 9, 2019

Ablation Stake on Wolverine Glacier

An ablation stake which began the summer below the surface of the snow is shown here in the fall, extending far above bare ice surface of Wolverine Glacier, Alaska. A USGS scientist carries a portable steam drill, used to install the stakes in the glacier.

Filter Total Items: 280
Photograph shows an eroding coastline along the Arctic bluffs of Alaska, with a building falling into the sea.
December 11, 2017

USGS scientists at the Pacific Coastal and Marine Science Center spoke by phone with Scientific American writer Andrea Thompson on November 15.

Map of Alaska’s north coast showing color-coded rates of shoreline erosion, Inset: Polar bear on Barter Island.
November 28, 2017

The USGS updated its shoreline-change rates for Alaska’s north coast between the U.S.-Canadian Border and Icy Cape as part of the National Assessment of Coastal Change Hazards.

Drill Rig at the Mt. Elbert Test Site
October 20, 2017

In the past decade, the development of the Barnett, Eagle Ford, Marcellus, and other shales has dominated the national consciousness regarding natural gas. But in Alaska, another form of natural gas has been the focus of research for decades—methane hydrate.

3 men leaning over big yellow metal grab bucket on the deck of a ship. Dark sediment is visible inside bucket
October 19, 2017

An international team of scientists just finished probing the depths of the Pacific Ocean offshore of Alaska and British Columbia, to better understand the Queen Charlotte-Fairweather Fault. During the past century, the 700-mile-long fault has generated at least half a dozen major earthquakes, and future shocks threaten coastal communities in both the United States and Canada.

Alaska mapping status map showing 84% statewide IfSAR coverage available
July 24, 2017

The USGS continues to collect high resolution elevation data, contributing to greatly improved Alaska map data

A polar bear walks across rubble ice in the Alaska portion of the southern Beaufort Sea
June 6, 2017

A new study led by the U.S. Geological Survey and the University of Wyoming found that increased westward ice drift in the Beaufort and Chukchi seas requires polar bears to expend more energy walking eastward on a faster moving “treadmill” of sea ice.  

Sea otter in kelp
May 2, 2017

Thanks to a quarter-century of research and monitoring, scientists now know how different wildlife species were injured by the 1989 Exxon Valdez oil spill and how long it took for populations to recover.

A gas plume arising from Augustine Volcano during it's eruptive phase 2005-06.
April 28, 2017

Which U.S. State or territory has more large earthquakes than the rest of the United States combined?

Hydrologic Regions of Alaska
April 14, 2017

While freshwater ecosystems cover only a small amount of the land surface in Alaska, they transport and emit a significant amount of carbon, according to new U.S. Geological Survey research. An invited feature article for Ecological Applications provides the first-ever major aquatic carbon flux assessment for the entire state. Carbon flux refers to the rate of carbon transfer between pools.

Midnight Rainbow at Atigun Gorge, Alaska
April 10, 2017

Managing 72 million acres of Federal lands in Alaska is not easy, especially when the land’s many uses need to be balanced. There are several competing interests, including the development of mineral resources that are critical to the American economy.

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