The most conspicuous thermal feature is a region of high temperatures in the deepest part of the collapse depression in the area of Halema‘uma‘u. Yellow fumaroles (openings through which hot volcanic gases escape to the surface) explain the high temperatures in this region. Another notable feature is a band of high temperatures along the face of the new collapse scarp that formed during summer 2018. The new scarp and underlying faults may now provide a pathway to the surface for hot volcanic gases rising from depth. No unusual changes were observed in the thermal map, and there is no indication that lava is near the surface at Kīlauea's summit.