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Past Month Monitoring Data for Kīlauea

This page presents Kīlauea monitoring data collected over the past month, including summit lava lake level, earthquake rates, locations, and depths, ground deformation data and gas data. 

Depth of Lava Lake

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Graph showing the data for the past month of lava depth (in meters) that has filled Halema‘uma‘u crater, at Kīlauea volcano's summit, since the 2018 collapse. On January 8, 2021, a novel laser rangefinder was stationed at Kīlauea volcano's summit. The fixed instrument continuously measures the distance to a location on the western lava lake surface, and telemeters data to HVO in real time. The raw data has been edited for this graph, with a running mean average filter of 3600 seconds. Variations in plotted depth can occur due to laser rangefinder returns on gas rather than the lava surface.For reference, the base of Halema‘uma‘u after the 2018 collapse event is “zero” on this plot (equal to an elevation of 518 meters/1699 ft above sea level). Post-eruption analyses indicate that the December 2020–May 2021 lava lake filled the base of Halema‘uma‘u to a depth of 223 meters/732 ft (equal to an elevation of approximately 741 meters/2431 ft above sea level). The ongoing eruption is adding to that lava depth. Lava will overflow Halema‘uma‘u, onto the lowest down-dropped block, at a depth of 267 meters/876 ft (equal to an elevation of 790 meters/2592 ft above sea level).

 

Seismic Data

Earthquake Hypocenters Map and Cross Section - Past Month

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Above Top: Map showing locations of earthquakes during the past month. Bottom: Depth of earthquakes (circles) during the past month. Depth is reported relative to sea level, which is equal to a depth of zero on the above plot. Circle-size represents magnitude, and color indicates depth. An interactive earthquake plot can be found on the HVO Earthquakes page.

Earthquake Rates and Depths - Past Month

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Above Top: Number of earthquakes per day during the past month (blue bars). The red line is the cumulative moment (energy) release. Bottom: Depth of earthquakes during the past month in the area shown on the map above. Depth is reported relative to sea level, which is equal to a depth of zero on the above plot. On both figures, circle-size represents magnitude, and color indicates depth. An interactive earthquake plot can be found on the HVO Earthquakes page.
Select deformation instuments located on Kīlauea Volcano
Select deformation instuments located on Kīlauea Volcano. (Public domain.)

Deformation Data

Map of Selected Deformation Stations

For more information on how electronic tiltmeters and GPS receivers help monitor the deformation of Kīlauea Volcano, see the HVO Deformation page. Data plots from additional stations are available from our interactive map. Use the right-side menu to view different types of data.

 

 

 

 

Electronic Tilt at Kīlauea Summit and East Rift Zone - Past Month

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The blue line shows the radial tilt at Uwekahuna station (UWE), on the western rim of Kīlauea's caldera. The green line is radial tilt at Pu‘u‘ō‘ō (POO), north of Pu‘u‘ō‘ō cone; this instrument is currently experiencing a long-term outage. These are recorded by continuously operating electronic tiltmeters. Positive changes often indicate inflation of the magma storage areas beneath the caldera or Pu‘u‘ō‘ō, but may also result from heavy rainfall or, occasionally, instrumental malfunctions.

Gas Data

Sulfur dioxide emission rates - Kīlauea summit - Past Month

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Sulfur dioxide (SO2) emission rates measured using an upward-looking ultraviolet spectrometer. These data are collected by traversing the gas plume in a vehicle or helicopter, downwind of Halema‘uma‘u, generally within and/or southwest of Kīlauea caldera. Results from multiple traverses during a day are averaged to yield the emission rates shown here. Successful measurements depend on wind, weather, and staff availability. Values are preliminary and are subject to revision.

 

Sulfur dioxide concentration in ambient air - Kīlauea Summit - Past Month

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Above: Sulfur dioxide (SO2) concentrations measured at ~1.5 m (~5 ft) above ground level in ambient air in parts per million (ppm) by volume. These data are collected at Kīlauea summit using equipment designed for monitoring volcanic unrest and may not be as accurate or precise as instruments used for for air quality measurements. Therefore, the unprocessed data stream may show drift in the background value or offset from a zero baseline. Values represent one-minute averages collected every 10-minutes. Spurious peaks may reflect instrument maintenance or malfunction.