Science Center Objects

Where online versions are available, the link is provided via the title. Click Science for articles.

This van supports X-band marine radar with a standard open-array antenna in rotation.
This van supports X-band marine radar with a standard open-array antenna in rotation. Observers with binoculars attempt to verify targets detected by radar in this interface between grassland, mesquite bosque, and riparian habitats southeast of Tucson, Arizona in April 2007.


Bertram, D.F., L. Cowen, and A.E. Burger. 1999. Use of radar for monitoring colonial burrow-nesting seabirds. Journal of Field Ornithology 70: 145-157.

Blokpoel, H., and J. Burton. 1975. Weather and the height of nocturnal migration in east-central Alberta: a radar study. Bird-Banding 46: 311-328.

Bruderer, B., and F. Liechti. 1998. Flight behaviour of nocturnally migrating birds in coastal areas—crossing or coasting. Journal of Avian Biology 29: 499-510.

Burger, A.E. 1997. Behavior and numbers of marbled murrelets measured with radar. Journal of Field Ornithology 68: 208-223.

Cabrera-Cruz, S.A., T.J. Mabee, and R. Villegas Patraca. 2013. Using theoretical flight speeds to discriminate birds from insects in radar studies. Condor 115:263-272. (southern Mexico)

Cooper, B.A. 1995. Use of radar for wind power-related avian research. Pp. 58-73 in Proceedings of National Avian–Wind Power Planning Meeting II. Avian Subcommittee of the National Wind Power Planning Committee, Palm Springs, CA.

Cooper, B.A. 1995. The altitude of bird migration in east-central Alaska: a radar and visual study. Journal of Field Ornithology 66: 590-608.

Cooper, B.A., and R.J. Blaha. 2002. Comparisons of radar and audio-visual counts of marbled murrelets during inland forest surveys. Wildlife Society Bulletin 30: 1182-1194.

Cooper, B.A., R.H. Day, R.J. Ritchie, and C.L. Cranor. 1991. An improved marine radar system for studies of bird migration. Journal of Field Ornithology 62: 367-377.

Cooper, B.A., M.G. Raphael, and E.E. Mack. 2001. Radar-based monitoring of marbled murrelets. Condor 103: 219-229.

Gauthreaux, Jr., S.A. 1985. Radar, electro-optical, and visual methods of studying bird flight near transmission lines. Final Report for Electric Power Research Institute, EPRI EA-4120.

Gauthreaux, Jr., S.A. 1985. An avian migration mobile research laboratory: hawk migration studies. Pp. 339-346 in Proceedings of Hawk Migration Conference IV. Hawk Migration Association of North America, Rochester, NY. 

Gauthreaux, Jr., S.A. 1991. The flight behavior of migrating birds in changing wind fields: radar and visual analyses. American Zoologist 3: 187-204.

Graber, R.R. 1968. Nocturnal migration in Illinois – different points of view. Wilson Bulletin 80: 36-71.

Graber, R.P., and S.S. Hassler. 1962. The effectiveness of aircraft-type (APS) radar in detecting birds. Wilson Bulletin 74: 367-380.

Graber, R.P., and W.W. Cochran. 1959. An audio technique for the study of nocturnal migration of birds. Wilson Bulletin 71: 220-236.

Hamer, T.E., B.A. Cooper, and C.J. Ralph. 1995. Use of radar to study the movements of marbled murrelets at inland sites. Northwestern Naturalist 76: 73-78.

Hamer, T., M. Reed, E. Colclazier, K. Turner and N. Denis. 2014. Nocturnal Surveys for Ashy Storm-Petrels (Oceanodroma homochroa) and Scripps’s Murrelets (Synthliboramphus scrippsi) at Offshore Oil Production Platforms, Southern California. US Dept. of the Interior, Bureau of Ocean Energy Management, Pacific OCS Region, Camarillo, CA. OCS Study BOEM 2014-013. 62 pp.

Harmata, A.R., G.R. Leighty, and E.L. O’Neil. 2003. A vehicle-mounted radar for dual purpose monitoring of birds. Wildlife Society Bulletin 31: 882-886.

Harmata, A.R., K.M. Podruzny, J.R. Zelenak, and M.L. Morrison. 1999. Using marine surveillance radar to study bird movements and impact assessment. The Wildlife Society Bulletin 27: 44-52.

Hassler, S.S., R.R. Graber, and F.C. Bellrose. 1963. Fall migration and weather, a radar study. Wilson Bulletin 75: 56-77.

Kelly, T.A. 2000. Radar, remote sensing and risk management. Pp. 152-161 in Proceedings of National Avian–Wind Power Planning Meeting III. RESOLVE, Inc., Washington, D.C.

Kelly, T.A. 2005. Managing birdstrike risk with information technologies: a review of the state-of-the-art in 2005. Proceedings of the USA-Canada Birdstrike Committee meeting, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada.

Kerlinger, P., and S.A. Gauthreaux, Jr. 1985. Seasonal timing, geographic distribution, and flight behavior of Broad-winged Hawks during spring migration in south Texas: a radar and visual study. Auk 102: 735-743.

Kerlinger, P., and S.A. Gauthreaux, Jr. 1985. Flight behavior of raptors during spring migration in south Texas studied with radar and visual observation. Journal of Field Ornithology 56: 294-402.

Kirsch, E.M., M.J. Wellik, M. Suarez, R.H. Diehl, J. Lutes, W. Woyczik, J. Krapfl, and R. Sojda. 2015. Observation of Sandhill Cranes' (Grus canadensis) flight behavior in heavy fog. Wilson Journal of Ornithology 127:281-288.

Korschgen, C.E., W.L. Green, W.L. Flock, and E.A. Hibbard. 1984. Use of radar with a stationary antenna to estimate birds in a low-level flight corridor. Journal of Field Ornithology 55: 369-375.

Kruse, K. 1996. A study of the effects of transmission towers on migrating birds. M.S. thesis, University of Wisconsin-Green Bay, Green Bay, WI.

Loots, S. 2014. Evaluation of radar and cameras as tools for automating the monitoring of waterbirds at industrial sites. Masters Thesis. University of Alberta (X-band marine radars).

Mabee, T.J., and B.A. Cooper. 2004. Nocturnal bird migration in northeastern Oregon and southeastern Washington. Northwest Naturalist 85: 39-47.

Mabee, T.J., B.A. Cooper, J.H. Plissner, and D.P. Young. 2006. Nocturnal bird migration over an Appalachian ridge at a proposed wind power project. Wildlife Society Bulletin 34: 682-690.

Nohara, T.J., P. Weber, A. Premji, C. Kranor, S.A. Gauthreaux, Jr., M. Brand, and G. Key. 2005. Affordable avian radar surveillance systems for natural resource management and BASH applications. Pp. 10-15 in Radar Conference Proceedings, IEEE 2005 International, Arlington, VA.

Peckford, M.L. 2006. Wind drift and the use of radar, acoustics, and Canadian Migration Monitoring Network methods for monitoring nocturnal passerine migration. M.S. Thesis, Acadia University, Wolfville, NS, Canada.

Peckford, M.L. and P.D. Taylor. 2008. Within night correlation between radar and ground counts of migrating songbirds. Journal of Field Ornithology 79: 207-214.

Ronconi, R.A. and C. Cassady St. Clair. 2006. Efficacy of a radar-activated on-demand system for deterring waterfowl from oil sands tailings ponds. Journal of Applied Ecology 43: 111-119.

Ronconi, R.A., C.C. St. Clair, P.D. O’Hara, and A.E. Burger. 2004. Waterbird deterrence at oil spills and other hazardous sites: potential applications of a radar-activated on-demand deterrence system. Marine Ornithology 32: 25-33. 

Ronconi, R.A., K.A. Allard, and P.D. Taylor. 2015. Bird interactions with offshore oil and gas platforms: review of impacts and monitoring techniques. Journal of Environmental Management 147:34-45.

Sanzenbacker, P.M., B.A. Cooper, J.H. Plissner, and J. Bond. 2014. Inter-annual patterns and passage rates and flight altitudes of Marbled Murrelet (Brachyramphus marmoratus) at inland sites in northern California. Marine Ornithology 42:169-174.

Stevens, R.G., J. Rogue, R. Weber, and L. Clark. 2000. Evaluation of a radar-activated, demand-performance bird hazing system. International Biodeterioration and Biodegradation 45: 129-137.

Williams, T.C., and Y. Mao. 1990. A comparison of radar observations of bird migration in Haizhou Bay, China, and Guam, Marianas. Auk 107: 404-406.

Williams, T.C., J.E. Marsden, T.L. Lloyd-Evans, V. Krauthamer, and H. Krauthamer. 1981. Spring migration studied by mist netting, ceilometer, and radar. Journal of Field Ornithology 52: 177-180.

Williams, T.C., and J.M. Williams. 1988. Radar and visual observations of autumnal (southward) shorebird migration on Guam. Auk 105: 460-466. 

Williams, T.C., J.M. Williams, P.G. Williams, and P. Stokstad. 2001. Bird migration through a mountain pass studied with high resolution radar, ceilometers, and census. Auk 118: 389-403.

Zakrajsek, E.J. and J.A. Bissonette. 2001. Nocturnal bird-avoidance modeling with a mobile-marine radar. Proceedings of the U.S./Canada Bird Strike Committee. 3rd Joint Annual Meeting, Calgary, Alberta, Canada.