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Gallium Deposits in the United States

February 23, 2021

This U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) data release provides the descriptions of the only U.S. sites—including mineral regions, mineral occurrences, and mine features—that have reported production and (or) resources of gallium (Ga). The sites in this data release have contained resource and (or) past production of more than 16 metric tons Ga metal, which was the approximate average annual consumption of Ga in the U.S. from 2016 through 2020. This dataset contains the Round Top deposit in Texas and the Apex deposit in Utah.

Gallium occurs in many different minerals and rocks where substitution takes place with elements of similar size, such as zinc, or similar charge, such as aluminum. Therefore, Ga is primarily recovered as a byproduct of processing aluminum or zinc ores (Foley and others, 2017). Some U.S. zinc deposits contain up to 50 parts per million Ga, but Ga is not currently recovered from U.S. mineral deposits.

Gallium is necessary for strategic, consumer, and commercial applications. Gallium is used in thin-film photovoltaics, and is important as an application for clean energy technologies. In 2020, the U.S. was 100 percent net import reliant on Ga from countries such as China, United Kingdom, Germany, and others (U.S. Geological Survey, 2021).

The entries and descriptions in the database were derived from published papers, reports, data, and internet documents representing a variety of sources, including geologic and exploration studies described in State, Federal, and industry reports. Resources extracted from older sources might not be compliant with current rules and guidelines in minerals industry standards such as National Instrument 43-101 (NI 43-101). The presence of a Ga mineral deposit in this database is not meant to imply that the deposit is currently economic. Rather, these deposits were included to capture the characteristics of the largest Ga deposits in the United States. Inclusion of material in the database is for descriptive purposes only and does not imply endorsement by the U.S. Government. The authors welcome additional published information in order to continually update and refine this dataset.

Foley, N.K., Jaskula, B.W., Kimball, B.E., and Schulte, R.F., 2017, Gallium, chap. H of Schulz, K.J., DeYoung, J.H., Jr., Seal, R.R., II, and Bradley, D.C., eds., Critical mineral resources of the United States—Economic and environmental geology and prospects for future supply: U.S. Geological Survey Professional Paper 1802, p. H1—H35,

U.S. Geological Survey, 2021, Mineral commodity summaries 2021: U.S. Geological Survey, 200 p.,

Publication Year 2021
Title Gallium Deposits in the United States
DOI 10.5066/P9S73UYY
Authors Nick A Karl, William R Gnesda, Jeffrey L Mauk, Amanda L Ringer
Product Type Data Release
Record Source USGS Digital Object Identifier Catalog
USGS Organization Geology, Geophysics, and Geochemistry Science Center