Skip to main content
U.S. flag

An official website of the United States government

Long-term gas and heat emissions measurements, Norris Geyser Basin, Yellowstone National Park

April 1, 2021

We installed an eddy covariance station on July 10, 2018 at Bison Flat, an acid-sulfate, vapor-dominated area (0.04-km2) in Norris Geyser Basin, Yellowstone National Park, WY to monitor variations in hydrothermal gas and heat emissions. Since then, this station has measured CO2, H2O and sensible and latent heat fluxes, air temperature and pressure, and wind speed and direction on a half-hourly basis. We also measured soil CO2 fluxes and temperatures on a grid using the accumulation chamber method and thermocouple probes, respectively, on July 11-12, 2018 and soil CO2 fluxes only on June 25, 2019. On July 10, 2018 and June 24, 2019, we collected fumarole gas samples for analysis of bulk chemical and carbon (d13C-CO2) and helium (Rc/Ra) isotope compositions. The eddy covariance, soil CO2 flux and temperature, and gas geochemical data sets were used to characterize baseline temporal and spatial variations in hydrothermal CO2 and heat emissions and gas sources for the study area and their relationships to meteorological variations.