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MODFLOW-2005, MODFLOW-NWT, and SEAWAT V.4 models used to simulate variable-density groundwater flow and contaminant transport at Naval Base Kitsap, Keyport, Washington

September 28, 2020

The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the U.S. Department of the Navy, developed several 3-D groundwater flow models for used with MODFLOW-2005, MODFLOW-NWT, and SEAWAT model codes to evaluate variable-density groundwater flow and contaminant transport in Operable Unit 1 on Naval Base Kitsap in Keyport, Washington. Chlorinated volatile organic compounds (CVOCs) have migrated to groundwater beneath a former 9-acre landfill at Operable Unit 1 (OU-1). The three predominant ground-water contaminants are the chloroethene compounds trichloroethene (TCE), cis-1,2-dichloroethene (cis-DCE), and vinyl chloride (VC). A need for remedial action was identified because some of the contaminants present a potential risk to humans primarily through drinking contaminated groundwater or through ingesting seafood harvested from contaminated surface water. An ongoing effort with the U.S. Navy and U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) began in 1995 by evaluating the effectiveness of natural attenuation processes for removing and controlling the migration of CVOCs in ground water at OU-1. Additional collection of geochemical and contaminant concentration data demonstrated that biodegradation of CVOCs in shallow groundwater at OU-1 is substantial and prevents most of the mass of dissolved-phase CVOCs in groundwater beneath the landfill from discharging to surface water. However, dissolved-phase contaminant concentrations in the hundreds of milligrams per liter continue to persist in localized areas of OU-1. Data suggest that residual sources of chloroethenes in the form of non-aqueous phase liquid remain at the site, and that biodegradation is only partly effective at reducing the dissolved-phase contaminants that are generated from these sources. In 2018 an additional USGS effort was begun to simulate variable-density groundwater flow and contaminant transport in the vicinity of OU-1 using a revised hydrogeologic model of the site and a refined delineation of persistent contaminant sources. MODFLOW-2005 and MODFLOW-NWT model codes were used to calibrate a new model. Then groundwater flow and contaminant transport models were developed using SEAWAT-Version 4, a computer program based on MODFLOW and MT3DMS, to simulate three-dimensional variable-density groundwater flow coupled with multi-species solute transport. These models were used to simulate the direction and rate of groundwater flow near OU-1, estimate the CVOC mass in groundwater and the rate of mass loading, and assess possible remedial activities at OU-1. This USGS data release contains all of the input and output files for the simulations described in the associated model documentation report (https://doi.org/10.3133/sir20205066).

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