These data were collected as part of a field trial to test the effectiveness of a sylvatic plague vaccine (see Rocke et al., 2017 for details). Vaccine and control plots were selected randomly from the available pairs at each location. Baits containing Rhodamine B, a biomarker, were distributed at each plot. At least 1 week and no more than 2 months post-baiting each year, local collaborators captured, marked, and sampled prairie dogs. Hair and whisker samples were collected from up to 50 unique prairie dogs from each plot each year. Sex, age, weight, and the identity of all current-year and prior-year recaptures were recorded for each captured animal. In the laboratory, hair/whiskers were assessed for the presence of Rhodamine B which fluoresces under UV light. The presence of RB fluorescence indicated bait consumption.