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Sylvatic plague vaccine partially protects prairie dogs (Cynomys spp.) in field trials

June 24, 2017

Sylvatic plague, caused by Yersinia pestis, frequently afflicts prairie dogs (Cynomys spp.), causing population declines and local extirpations. We tested the effectiveness of bait-delivered sylvatic plague vaccine (SPV) in prairie dog colonies on 29 paired placebo and treatment plots (1–59 ha in size; average 16.9 ha) in 7 western states from 2013 to 2015. We compared relative abundance (using catch per unit effort (CPUE) as an index) and apparent survival of prairie dogs on 26 of the 29 paired plots, 12 with confirmed or suspected plague (Y. pestis positive carcasses or fleas). Even though plague mortality occurred in prairie dogs on vaccine plots, SPV treatment had an overall positive effect on CPUE in all three years, regardless of plague status. Odds of capturing a unique animal were 1.10 (95% confidence interval [C.I.] 1.02–1.19) times higher per trap day on vaccine-treated plots than placebo plots in 2013, 1.47 (95% C.I. 1.41–1.52) times higher in 2014 and 1.19 (95% C.I. 1.13–1.25) times higher in 2015. On pairs where plague occurred, odds of apparent survival were 1.76 (95% Bayesian credible interval [B.C.I.] 1.28–2.43) times higher on vaccine plots than placebo plots for adults and 2.41 (95% B.C.I. 1.72–3.38) times higher for juveniles. Our results provide evidence that consumption of vaccine-laden baits can protect prairie dogs against plague; however, further evaluation and refinement are needed to optimize SPV use as a management tool.

Publication Year 2017
Title Sylvatic plague vaccine partially protects prairie dogs (Cynomys spp.) in field trials
DOI 10.1007/s10393-017-1253-x
Authors Tonie E. Rocke, Daniel W. Tripp, Robin E. Russell, Rachel C. Abbott, Katherine Richgels, Marc R. Matchett, Dean E. Biggins, Randall Griebel, Greg Schroeder, Shaun M. Grassel, David R. Pipkin, Jennifer Cordova, Adam Kavalunas, Brian Maxfield, Jesse T. Boulerice, Michael W. Miller
Publication Type Article
Publication Subtype Journal Article
Series Title EcoHealth
Index ID 70188796
Record Source USGS Publications Warehouse
USGS Organization National Wildlife Health Center