Skip to main content
U.S. flag

An official website of the United States government

Biological Soil Crust Community

Detailed Description

This is a community of biological soil crusts including scale lichens, crustose lichens, mosses, and cyanobacteria. 

Biological soil crusts are an intimate association of soil particles, cyanobacteria, algae, lichens, bryophytes, and microfungi which live within or directly on top of the uppermost millimeters of soil. (Belnap, 2003)


Belnap, J. , Büdel, B. & Lange, O. L. (2003). Biological soil crusts: characteristics and distribution. In Biological Soil Crusts: Structure, Function, and Management (Volume 150, eds Belnap J. and Lange O. L.), pp. 3–30. Springer, Berlin and Heidelberg


Public Domain.