Bird Banding Lab, U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service—Centennial Presentation

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Detailed Description

This year marks the 100-year anniversary of the establishment of the USGS Bird Banding Laboratory. The lab hosted a live webinar to highlight the long history between the Bird Banding Lab and US Fish & Wildlife Services, and how they have impacted avian science in the past 100 years. Over the past 100 years, there have been significant advances in banding science. One milestone was the creation of the Endangered Species Act in 1973. The act helps guide research priorities, while data from the USGS lab also helps inform decisions on which species should be considered for listing. In addition, the number of applications to become a bander has continued to grow, and this expanded network brings more robust data that are essential to the protection and recovery of birds. Laboratory staffers manage more than 77 million archived banding records and more than 5 million bird encounter reports. Many of these data are used by USFWS for avian conservation and management.
 

Details

Date Taken:

Length: 00:58:18

Location Taken: Laurel, MD, US

Video Credits

Pam Garrettson, Ph. D., USGWS, Wildlife Biologist Antonio Celis-Murillo, Ph. D., Bird Banding Lab, Acting Chief Paul Link, Louisiana Department of Wildlife and Fisheries, Photographer and Master Bander
 

Transcript

9:36
Tony, your microphone.
9:41
Hello.
9:43
Welcome to the USUS
9:46
preventing lab Centennial celebration.
9:48
This is the second our Second Life presentation, my
9:51
name is Antonio Sally's.
9:53
And I'm the acting chief of the verb ending
9:56
love, and I'm going to give you a little bit and talk about
10:00
the rebranding love. But mainly I'm here to introduce you to Pam
10:03
Garrison. She's a wildlife biologist with the
10:06
US Fish and Wildlife Service, and she's going to talk about the importance
10:10
of her bending science to inform hunting thresholds
10:13
for many migratory game birds.
10:15
Next please.
10:17
And before moving into Pams
10:21
presentation for those who are not familiar with their banding, banding is the
10:25
attacks. It's the attachment of a small individual
10:28
number, metal or plastic tag to the leg of wing of
10:32
a wild bird. This enables to individual
10:35
into fication of the parts, usually we
10:38
catch a bird to have a bird in our
10:41
hands tube and we have the opportunity to
10:45
collect a lot of different data that is very useful for a lot of
10:48
scientific questions.
10:48
For example, we are able to collect age
10:51
sex, size of the bird, weight of the bird and use all
10:55
these information for our science
10:58
But as soon as we finish that, we just released the bird in
11:02
the wild next please.
11:04
For those who are not familiar with
11:07
the USUS bur banding laboratory, this laboratory was
11:10
established in 1920. Therefore, right now we're
11:14
celebrating the Centennial in the year 2020. The BBL
11:17
is an integrated sceintific program supporting the
11:21
collection, archiving, management and dissemination
11:24
of information from Bandit and Mark Birds
11:27
in North America. Next, please.
11:28
Among the many roles
11:32
that the bird banding level house in aiding conservation, one of the main
11:36
roles is issue further permits
11:40
We basically any person any individual in the
11:44
US who wants to capture in Mark Bird to
11:48
put a band, needs to work with us and come to us for a federal permit.
11:51
If those requesting
11:54
permits have enough experience, training and
11:58
ave any specific scientific question in mind, we give them a
12:01
permit and also we supply the vans that they will
12:05
use for their operations.
12:06
And next
12:09
please.
12:11
And in addition to that, the
12:14
banders, once they collect all the data, they send the data to
12:17
us. So the bird Banding lab hosts
12:20
in, managed all the data for all the vendors in North
12:23
America. This includes the vendors in the US, in Canada.
12:26
Basically the BBL
12:29
in terms of management has the responsibility
12:32
to make sure the data is collected properly in the
12:36
field. There comes to us clean the data
12:39
a that comes to us. It's also curated.
12:42
And also that the data
12:46
is archived property and ready to use for aiding
12:49
concentration. And when I say ready to use I
12:52
I mean it's data that data is ultimately used
12:55
by USGS scientists with in-house
12:59
physically, but also that data is facilitated and
13:02
shared to other partners and colleagues. This could be
13:06
from federal agencies like US Fish and Wildlife Service
13:10
or state or local organizations or even the public.
13:12
If they are interested in using the data
13:15
next please.
13:17
And in addition to issuing
13:20
federal permits and managing data
13:24
we also work on
13:27
receiving hundreds of thousands of reports as
13:31
a yearly basis for all the birds
13:34
that are being cited or found
13:37
with marks or aluminium
13:41
bands. All the data that comes to us constantly
13:44
WWW report band that got and this
13:47
s is really where.
13:47
The information gets interested because
13:50
all the reports come to us and we have the ability to connect that
13:53
those encounter or recapture data with bending
13:57
data and really having depending data knowing
14:00
where the bird was banded in later, where the
14:03
bear was found really makes the opportunity for
14:06
us to learn about all the basically by all the
14:10
unique quality of birds where birds go. Who goes where.
14:14
Basically, understand all of our local
14:17
movements, long distance migration and most importantly
14:20
understand about this survival as survival is
14:25
l is key component of
14:28
any conservation or management activity.
14:31
Next please.
14:33
And as you imagine, after 100 years of serving
14:37
the nation, our database just keeps growing. We have
14:40
about 80,000,000 bandings, about 5 million encounters
14:43
so far in our database, which is about 1.2 million
14:47
bandings in about 80 to 100,000 encounters annually
14:51
I mean, this really makes a huge huge data
14:54
resource of banding data that can be used to
14:57
answer many, many questions. If you think about the
15:00
importance of having a long term national
15:04
reserves where coordinated data came in.
15:06
It's very easy to use to look at
15:09
the past, understand the present and you
15:12
actually look at the future in terms of bird populations
15:17
and transgender populations. So we have the
15:20
opportunity to really do a lot of different studies
15:23
including all kinds of species from
15:26
m very specific studies that look at single
15:30
species, like from home members to all the way to geese
15:33
to actually look at specific groups like.
15:36
I game or non game group of
15:40
species and next please.
15:41
And that's why we invited baritone she's
15:45
s a biologist, use Fish and Wildlife service, she's
15:48
going to specifically talk about the importance of bourbon
15:52
in science to inform hunting threats. Hold on many
15:55
migratory game birds.
15:56
She works with the division of my
16:00
recovery Management since 2000 and Pam got an
16:04
undergraduate degree in biochemistry at the
16:07
University of Maryland, Baltimore County. She's actually
16:10
mailing native.
16:12
She also got a PhD at Louisiana State
16:15
University where she focused on researching bring waterfall and.
16:20
Also, I know she's a avid
16:23
social dancer and I'm sure nowadays
16:27
with the restrictions we have due to covering them, she's
16:30
looking forward for dancing
16:33
again, at least on safer times and
16:36
d with that I think it's time to
16:39
present Pam next list.
16:44
In
16:48
our families gonna give us a talk and if you
16:52
have questions during the talk, feel free to use the future
16:55
of question and answers in teams and we hope
16:59
at the end we will have some time to answer your questions
17:02
Welcome Pam and thank you for coming to terms with thank.
17:05
Thank you very much Tony. I really appreciate the opportunity to
17:08
talk about.
17:10
The banding data that you guys are
17:13
such great stewards of and how
17:16
important it really is to us and we're going to just run through
17:19
a few of the few of the ways that
17:23
we use those data.
17:24
Next line.
17:26
So why is the federal government involved in
17:30
migratory bird management at all? 'cause most wildlife is
17:33
managed by the state?
17:34
But because migratory birds crossed international
17:37
orders, there managed under treaties with other countries in
17:41
d are thus subject to federal jurisdiction.
17:43
Take me not occur unless authorized.
17:47
Additional protection is extended to Eagles
17:51
Now, regardless of the species, in order to make decisions
17:54
about permitting, take the US Fish and Wildlife Service
17:58
needs information about various bird species. An much of that information
18:02
comes from banding data. Next slide.
18:08
Now, if you saw John Titans talk.
18:11
That Frederick Lincoln was the first chief of the
18:14
US Bird Banding lab. He also knew authored
18:18
numerous papers and books that pioneer techniques on how to
18:21
use banding and recovery data to obtain information on
18:25
birds and use it to inform the kinds of decisions that we need to
18:28
make about managing migratory birds.
18:30
Next line.
18:31
Now
18:37
know that banning a bird started as early as
18:40
18 four.
18:42
But our concern in our discussion of
18:45
the history of it is really going to start here with Mr. Fred Lincoln
18:49
Mr Lincoln was instrumental in
18:53
establishing coordinating banding of North American waterfowl
18:56
and he used that early data to identify the North
18:59
American flyways which we still use
19:02
delineate populations and derive estimates of
19:06
abundance where, namely, the Lincoln Peterson estimator.
19:08
Numerous researchers and statisticians
19:12
have come after him and develop some various sophisticated
19:15
techniques for analyzing banding and recovery data
19:19
and have extended these
19:22
techniques for use another wildlife and
19:25
ecological applications.
19:27
I'm gonna give you just a few a few
19:30
w of these examples today and turns out we're
19:33
still using one of Mr Lincolns techniques today.
19:38
Now all these methods require that you encounter at least
19:41
some proportion of the banded birds and require that you keep
19:44
track of both bandings and encounters, and that is where BBL
19:48
is just invaluable. That's what they do.
19:51
In most cases those re encounters are going to involve
19:54
the cooperation of numerous members of the public around the world.
19:57
We've been doing community science for
20:00
literally decades, so I'm also going to touch on some of
20:03
the aspects of banding, data collection and analysis that
20:07
are possible only because millions literally
20:10
y millions of people have stepped up and helped us next slide.
20:18
Now, as like Tony told you, many, many
20:21
species of birds have been banded over the
20:24
past century.
20:25
But much of the analytical
20:29
work has focused on hunting species, especially waterfowl.
20:32
This is because banded birds from 100 species are
20:36
more likely to be recovered, so there's greater numbers of
20:39
recoveries, which makes crew statistical estimation of
20:42
metrics such as survival in harvest possible.
20:46
Reports abandoned birds that died and
20:49
then subsequently subsequently were discovered are
20:52
relatively rare by comparison.
20:54
If you just look this snapshot here
20:57
of the sheer numbers of waterfowl banding and
21:00
recovered each year, indicate how
21:04
central banding data is to waterfowl
21:07
management. Next slide.
21:09
Bending
21:13
data helped us discover that waterfall Breed winter in
21:16
d migrate along 4 main corridors in North
21:19
America, and that led to the development of the Flyway system so.
21:24
The idea was you wanted to make the
21:27
administration or administration and management.
21:32
Match where the biology of the where the birds
21:35
go. Ann Frederick Lincoln did some of the early work on
21:39
this next slide.
21:42
We can also use banding data to
21:46
provide information at smaller scales or for individual
21:49
species such as the American black duck shown here.
21:52
Next slide.
21:54
This
21:57
just gives you a one small example of
22:00
that. So if you look here.
22:02
You can see that birds banded in these two different
22:05
areas. Two different wildlife management
22:09
Excuse me, while we met refuges.
22:11
These tend to get recovered in very different
22:14
places, so data on these movements are then used to
22:19
delineate banding areas next slide.
22:23
We can describe these movement patterns
22:26
which are called transition probabilities mathematically.
22:29
The probability that a bird banded in a given
22:32
area will move to move to and be recovered in
22:35
a particular harvest region can then be calculated and used
22:38
to inform harvest regulations.
22:40
So, for example, managers strive to
22:44
keep more or less equal parity between Canadian
22:47
and US. Harvest of black box.
22:49
It's part of an international strategy, actually.
22:53
And so the other thing is that
22:56
bird burst from different banding errors may have very different
23:00
survival and recovery probabilities and then different
23:03
sex age sex cohorts often have different right vital
23:06
rates and.
23:08
And transition probabilities for
23:11
r example, females of most North American duck species tend to be more
23:14
faithful to their Natal or where they were hatched areas
23:17
than in males, and this is
23:20
because, unlike song, many songbirds where the
23:24
males establish breeding territories and attract females to
23:28
it. Mill docs paired with a female during
23:31
fall and winter and they defend her. It's like a moving territory, they
23:35
defend her and they and they go wherever she goes.
23:37
So the bottom line is that all these life history
23:40
characteristics can make certain portions of the population more vulnerable
23:44
to harvest, and possibly have either
23:47
lower survival during the hunting season, or perhaps other times of the year.
23:51
Next slide.
23:58
So we can also look and see if rain rain sometimes
24:01
ranges changed overtime.
24:03
Black belly whistling ducks are a species that has
24:07
recently been expanding its range from Mexico
24:10
and South Texas into the US Golf Coast in southern
24:13
Atlantic Coast.
24:14
So managers have been using banding data
24:18
to document these range expansions. They also
24:21
want to obtain vital rate information such as annual survival rates like
24:25
Tony mentioned before. For these birds that
24:28
are now spending at least some of their
24:31
way further North than they used to.
24:33
We'll talk a little bit about the group of models
24:36
known as capture Recapture models in a minute, but first
24:39
I'd like to point out a couple of things happening here in this slide.
24:43
First off, the pair shown there are
24:46
wearing color bands marked with very visible numbers that could
24:49
e read from a distance.
24:51
Because black back belly whistling ducks
24:54
aren't heavily harvested by hunters.
24:57
Researchers also color marked some of these birds an hope
25:01
they were hoping to use specialized models that
25:04
use data from dead recoveries. Live recaptures
25:07
by bannings, and re sightings of color mark
25:11
birds to end to estimate their survival.
25:13
Secondly, the vendor
25:16
here pulling from the Louisiana
25:20
Department of Wildlife and
25:23
Fisheries and the young man shown is the son of one of
25:26
the many private land owners who allow Paul to
25:29
work on their land to band birds now
25:32
w of course, many birds are
25:35
pent banded on public land, such as refugees and wildlife management areas
25:39
but we also a great debt to the numerous
25:42
private individuals across the country that hosted support and.
25:45
Banding efforts on their property.
25:47
This slide also
25:50
in illustrates the various entities that conduct
25:53
banding, including federal, state provincial.
25:57
Public agencies
25:59
Universities and private individuals
26:03
and many, many of us cooperate and coordinate
26:07
our efforts to make the data.
26:09
More valuable.
26:11
Next slide.
26:19
If you hear a wildlife, I'll just talking about
26:22
brownie model. They are not talking about their latest baking
26:26
project. Cabal Brownie is a statistician who the
26:29
mid 1970s developed a method for estimating survival
26:32
and band recovery probabilities.
26:34
On harvest, she started harvested
26:38
species, initially mallards, but her ideas, as I said, were extended by
26:41
many others.
26:42
Into a variety of models, Nunez capture recapture models.
26:47
Next slide.
26:50
The increasing availability of computers enabled
26:54
electronic data storage capacity and computational power
26:59
to put these ideas into practice a lot
27:02
t of this work was done at Patuxet by scientists such
27:05
as Jim Nichols and Jim's Jim Hines, whose offices were
27:09
right down the Hall from the Bird Banding Lab.
27:11
Other individual influence influential
27:14
l individuals included. Can Burnham and Dave Anderson
27:18
on the production website? There's still page that provides access
27:21
to a number of these early programs I actually used
27:25
d one of them myself this summer.
27:26
However, in the late 1990s, Gary
27:29
White wrote a program that incorporated many of these models into a single
27:33
platform with the GUI, and it's called program
27:36
Mark, and then very helpfully
27:40
Evan ***** wrote an ebook explaining how to use it
27:43
and put it up on the relatively young Internet.
27:46
Both of these things made these models much more
27:49
accessible to the rest of us mere mortals. An honestly, if
27:52
you wanted to learn to do these.
27:54
You could get on online and download
27:57
Mark and check out Evans Book and you'd be on your
28:01
way next slide.
28:06
Alright, so you can get banned recovery and survival
28:09
rates out of a brownie model and the
28:12
survival rates are a little bit complicated
28:16
to estimate and you do new notes
28:19
computers to do it, but the some of the other
28:22
rates we can actually calculate by
28:25
hand as well and so will sort of run through the math with
28:29
some of these things. So let's define some terms. So first of all, band band recovery rate or
28:33
band recovery probability is just the.
28:36
The number of banded birds recovered divided
28:40
by the total number of birds you banded.
28:42
In recovery means that a
28:45
person killed, retrieved and reported this bird to the bird banding lab.
28:49
A direct recovery indicates that was done in
28:52
the same year that it was banded, so it may be banned in August
28:55
and recovered and say November of that hunting
28:58
season, right following the banding season.
29:00
And then an indirect recovery is one that
29:04
is recovered in a subsequent year. So you can see
29:08
that estimate survival. You've got this probability that it's
29:11
going to get.
29:12
Recovered its first year. It survives
29:15
It has a certain probability of surviving and then getting recovered. Again the
29:18
following year. So you can use that to
29:21
build to build a little database and
29:25
then and then estimates are viable mathematically.
29:28
However, you have to bend for
29:31
multiple years in a row to get any kind of survival rates
29:35
and your estimates are going to be way more
29:38
precise depending on both the numbers of birds banded and
29:41
the numbers of birds recovered.
29:42
Next slide.
29:46
We can then start to ask some questions about what
29:50
affects survival in band recovery rates and what with the relationship between
29:53
them might be.
29:55
So one question is how to have attack
29:58
conditions affect survival? It might surprise you to
30:02
learn that the survival female dabbling
30:05
ducks, especially mallards, tends to be lower when breeding habitat
30:08
t conditions are good. Seems odd this is
30:11
because they nest in the ground and are vulnerable to predators
30:15
That may take pens or nests.
30:17
Females can re nest if they lose a nest and
30:20
they do more do so more frequently if the
30:24
habitat conditions are good an mallinger do it up to six
30:27
and six or seven times.
30:28
However, when a hen is persistent, like
30:31
that, her persistence results in
30:34
a longer time where she's on and on
30:37
n a potentially on a nest and potentially exposed to predators such
30:41
as other red Fox who were especially adept at
30:45
catching hands as they flush from the nest at the Fox's approach so
30:49
o snag him right out of the air.
30:52
Another potential question is whether harvest
30:55
mortality is additive to natural mortality
30:59
or Alternatively if weather harvest mortality is
31:03
offset somewhat or compensated for by a
31:06
natural lower mortality in the hunting population.
31:10
Fergie's pretty much most people
31:13
think that is probably additive, but for ducks it
31:16
was and is a major debate that led to the development of
31:19
adaptive harvest management or.
31:22
Now just framework in which biologist
31:25
test different models about harvest mortality all simultaneously
31:29
made managing harvest an along the way
31:33
trying to learn about how populations respond to
31:36
habitat conditions and harvest. But regardless we
31:39
e need to ensure that harvest is sustainable
31:42
over the long term, and to do that we need a true estimate of
31:46
harvest probability next slide.
31:49
Now
31:54
remember the directband recovery probability was just
31:57
the portion that were encountered
32:01
during the hunting season right after they were banded and
32:04
d as a reminder, there killed, retrieved and reporting to the
32:08
banding office.
32:09
Now, if everyone who can countered
32:14
band reported it, then the harvest probability would just be equal to our
32:18
band recovery probability and we wouldn't have to do any kind of object
32:21
adjustments. But not everybody reports their band, and so a band
32:26
reporting probability is going to be our estimate of what
32:29
proportion of people that harvest it and do indeed reported to
32:32
the bird. Daniel app. We can then use that
32:36
probability to adjust the recovery
32:39
rates for non reporting.
32:40
To get a true estimate of harvest.
32:42
Next slide.
32:45
So before we talk about how to estimate band
32:49
reporting probability, let's talk about some reasons why a
32:52
person might not report a band One of the main
32:55
reasons is reasons is reporting
32:59
probability. Excuse me is reporting method so.
33:02
For many decades.
33:04
Writing the Bird banding lab. A letter was
33:07
the only way to send it and in 19
33:10
995 the addition of phone
33:14
number vastly improved reporting rates.
33:17
The other piece of it is you kind of know where to
33:20
send it too, and sometimes those early band inscriptions
33:23
were really cryptic soavi say I think it
33:27
was trying to get maybe more Spanish rabbis
33:30
or however you pronounce it may be
33:34
e a sort of sort of Spanish, but people just were like.
33:37
EBay is Washington DC and there's
33:41
no, there's no zip code on it, and then there
33:44
were some bands that said Washington Biological Survey
33:47
and somebody thought it said wash, boil, and serve
33:51
Which was your cooking instructions for the bird. This guy so
33:55
aking the change to phone and then web
33:58
address bands were was really key and
34:02
then also assuring people and getting the word out that
34:05
hat they could.
34:07
Step that they could keep the band and all they
34:11
had to do was call up and send and give them the number.
34:14
Band where can make it difficult
34:18
for birds for the person who
34:21
encounters the band to read it, and if it's worn
34:25
completely thin or smooth rather
34:28
r they may well know that they could send it to the bird banding lab
34:33
and have the Meggitt they treated with acid and then the numbers
34:36
become more visible.
34:38
So be in the past alot of state
34:42
agencies would solicit bands they would
34:45
go to boat launches an other Hunter check stations
34:49
and ask people if they had banded birds and they
34:52
stop doing that. When we went to the
34:55
toll free number so but that does make.
34:59
Analyzing the data for the entire time series
35:02
A little bit well, lot bit more complicated.
35:05
So how are we going to figure out
35:09
what this band reporting probability is next slide?
35:14
We end up using money or excuse
35:18
me reward or money bands some of the
35:22
e hunters joke and call him that.
35:24
And then we also use standard or
35:27
control bands to estimate the reporting rate so
35:31
o the reward bands are usually different color typically
35:34
y green, and have a unique number, the word reward
35:37
and a dollar value that dollar value needs to be high
35:41
enough that nearly 100% of people will
35:44
report those reward banded birds.
35:46
No.
35:49
Birds were gonna get a stamp. Birds are going to get a standard
35:53
band on one leg and reward band on the other and then the
35:56
control. Banded birds just get a standard band.
35:58
So once again, we
36:02
revisit direct recovery probabilities an in this case all you have to
36:05
do is you can calculate the directory
36:08
recovery probability shown here is F.
36:11
Of the control birds and the recovery
36:14
probability of the reward, birds just divide them
36:17
by each other and there you have your reporting
36:20
probability and now you can just. You can use that to
36:25
correct the recovery estimate from a complete sand sample
36:28
of all the other birds. Standard banded birds you
36:31
also banded during the year.
36:34
Next slide.
36:42
So the band reporting probability has
36:45
been more or less increasing since the early 1970s, which
36:48
is when most of our reliable estimates start. There's a
36:52
big jump over the over the course of a just a few
36:55
years after 1995. Then, and that's when the
36:59
one 800 number was introduced personally
37:02
y, I think that the increase occurred quicker than was
37:05
expected because the Internet, the Internet
37:08
became more widely available to people around that
37:12
time. So even if you got one of a band with one of those.
37:14
Old cryptic inscriptions you
37:18
could look up where to report it and then just
37:21
pick up the phone and call it in.
37:23
Web reporting increased through the 2000s and
37:27
then a few years ago when the one 800
37:30
number was discontinued.
37:32
I was, I assume that reporting would
37:35
decrease, but I was flat out wrong, it's continued
37:39
to increase and our latest information
37:42
suggests it may exceed 90%, which is just amazing
37:45
When do 90% of people do anything honestly?
37:49
Now, it does remain considerably lower in Canada especially
37:52
y in eastern Canada. Although Canadian reporting rates
37:56
have improved, but the gap remains.
37:58
Just about the same.
38:00
Next slide.
38:03
So now we've now we've
38:06
e able. We've got a an estimate of true
38:09
harvest probability and how do we use it? Here's just one example
38:12
out of many.
38:14
A banding ended up being is especially
38:17
important for wood duck management, since we don't
38:20
have any rangewide survey estimates of their population.
38:24
Historically, they were reduced by over
38:27
harvest and habitat loss to very low numbers and the seasons
38:31
s were closed or restricted for decades.
38:33
Since 1962, the bag limit had been
38:37
too, and their numbers rebounded probably aided
38:40
Also by reforestation in the East.
38:43
Now, as part of an evaluation of their harvest
38:46
potential and the potential effects of increasing the
38:49
wood duck bag limit to three, we
38:53
calculated recovery rates, reporting rates, and
38:56
then we could use those to calculate the harvest
38:59
rates, and here they are shown.
39:00
For females, juveniles in
39:03
pink and adults in blue or for the northeastern US
39:07
and North and eastern Canada. Now you can
39:10
see we've looked at the pink line there that the harvest is
39:13
higher for juveniles. There's sort of young and dumb, and they get killed
39:18
at higher rate and higher during periods of
39:22
liberal regulations such as the 1970s.
39:24
There were restrictive season links instituted
39:27
during the 1980s. That was those were based
39:31
d on habitat conditions in the Canadian US Prairies
39:34
so doesn't really affect wood duck habitat, but they got the same
39:38
the same season length and there and
39:41
their harvest rates fell.
39:43
Estimates of true harvest rate in combination with
39:47
other work informed of the decision to increase the wood duck
39:50
bag. An annual ongoing estimates
39:54
of direct direct recovery and then harvest rates
39:57
suggests that harvest rates remain within
40:00
the threshold that we've estimated to be allowable.
40:03
Next slide.
40:10
OK, so let's talk a little bit about
40:13
how we use on banding data in goose management and then
40:16
this is again just touching on this a little bit.
40:19
So we've already discussed how members of
40:22
the public can help with management by first of all
40:25
reporting bands and then some people are able to
40:29
allow one banding on their property, which is
40:32
awesome. Sometimes people are able to help in their in their own local areas.
40:36
In the UK you
40:39
Kuskokwim Delta region of the western coast
40:42
of Alaska, the youth, the youth of Québec
40:46
Alaska at Lasca worked at the old Cevik Goose camp
40:49
with researchers from the US Geological Survey in
40:52
US Fish and Wildlife Service they captured
40:56
d and banded geese and geese and Swans along the cash
40:59
Nook River from 1986 through 2
41:02
010, and a lot of this stuff here I'm taking right from.
41:06
A brochure about this program.
41:09
So the spending program was an
41:12
important aspect of the conservation of the geese nesting there
41:16
both in terms of collecting data and helping to build
41:19
trust. Both of these things eventually led to the addition
41:22
of regulations for subsistence harvest. Harvest of
41:26
the birds, that in their words, the geese, and
41:29
Swans that breed breed here and from time
41:32
immemorial, had returned each spring and kept to pick
41:36
ancestors from dying of starvation.
41:37
And of course, not just the banding but the reporting
41:41
g is as important as well. And on the right
41:44
you can see some display bands that were made up and put on
41:49
key chains as a way of getting the word out.
41:56
Next slide.
41:58
So
42:04
the banning do you standing program was part of
42:08
a cooperative effort to reverse the decline of several
42:11
new species that are shown here.
42:12
And.
42:15
This is again how the.
42:18
The document on the banding program puts
42:21
it quote seeing fewer and fewer geese return here
42:24
to nest worried residents of the YK Delta
42:28
Newnam.
42:29
C and the Association of Village council
42:32
presidents. They had many meetings and discussions with the
42:35
US Fish and Wildlife Service.
42:38
Department of Game and Fish fishing game excuse
42:41
e me and private conservation groups, California, the
42:44
Maine state where Arctic geese were haunted in the winter
42:48
also sent representatives.
42:52
In November of 1984, the Association
42:56
of Village Council presidents reached a consensus.
42:59
And pass the Hooper Bay Agreement while I'm soon to be
43:02
called the Yukon Delta Mongoose Management plan.
43:06
This was intended to convert
43:10
conserve the pop of the populations of geese that nest
43:13
there. Everyone from California to Alaska pitched in to
43:17
help by limiting or stopping hunting and a gathering.
43:22
Cooperation not only led to rising numbers of geese
43:26
but also to the.
43:27
Wait amendment to the
43:31
original 1918 Migratory Bird Treaty Act. That's the
43:34
same one we talked about in the beginning of this talk.
43:36
The now the Act officially includes
43:39
a lengthen subsistence hunting.
43:41
Time that reflects traditional you so traditionally
43:44
used hunting in the spring and gathering and
43:47
activities like that from that 1995 amendment arose
43:51
the Alaska Migratory Co Management Council in 2000
43:55
Representatives from Alaska's nonprofit tribal
43:58
organizations work with residents of
44:02
ents of from the representatives from the wildlife agencies to
44:05
bsistence hunting rules that will benefit
44:08
both hunters and the birds. And you can see this is
44:12
this has been a success story.
44:12
The numbers rebounded
44:16
and I have to say that when the first the first time
44:19
the representatives from the Co Management Council came to
44:23
the SRC. The Service Regulations Committee meeting it really
44:26
wasn't. It truly was a historic event
44:30
and that kind of cooperation and sort of bringing subsistence
44:34
harvest into the regular.
44:37
Into the official
44:40
wildlife management fold.
44:43
It can. It is obviously good
44:47
for the conservation of the species.
44:51
Next slide.
44:54
So some goose species
44:57
and populations nest in very remote areas of the Arctic. You can look here
45:01
and see that this is a banning site, but they
45:04
just had to take a helicopter, even get in there
45:07
some geese nest over Arctic ease, nest over very
45:11
wide area. That makes them very difficult to survey, so
45:14
for some species, goose managers have
45:17
revived Fred Lincolns idea for estimating
45:20
abundance in wildlife, which he first published in 19
45:24
30. Now look.
45:24
The calculations have become a little bit
45:28
more complex. For example, now we can calculate
45:31
the variance around the abundance estimates, but the general
45:34
idea is the same. Let's take a look.
45:39
Next slide.
45:40
Whoops it. There we go. Yep, good. That's the slide I
45:44
want so.
45:45
In the case of the Lincoln Peterson estimate
45:48
estimate, we're using capture recapture techniques
45:53
and assuming that the population is essentially the same, no birth
45:56
or death or moving on into or out of the
46:00
population, that's known as a closed population.
46:02
You're a these assumptions never hold perfectly
46:06
y true, but if you violate them
46:09
too badly, you will get a biased estimate.
46:12
So you're going to sample disclosed
46:16
population twice, and the estimate of
46:19
abundance big N up there is just going to be the number
46:22
that you encountered in the second sample divided by
46:25
the proportion of the first sample.
46:27
That you encountered in the second sample. OK, so
46:30
we're going to get these banding is
46:33
anding is the first sampling event an when unknown number
46:37
of birds were marked, and then the second sampling event is
46:40
the hunting season so.
46:42
And we get information on this second
46:45
sample from hunters through hunters in two
46:49
ways. So first we have a separate survey of hunters
46:52
who report how many birds they harvested an you can see the.
46:56
They were looking at wings that so
46:59
some of them also send in wings and
47:02
Diaries, and the wings. And then we can use that
47:05
to estimate species composition and the total
47:08
number of species harvested
47:11
That's N two another words. That's the number.
47:15
The number encountered in the second
47:18
The second sample.
47:19
So
47:23
and then there's a few other group
47:26
of people that we've been talking about all
47:29
l of the whole talk are those folks that are out
47:32
there, and they have harvested abandoned
47:35
bird and they call it into the bird banding lab
47:39
And what proportion of?
47:43
So that's basically the proportion of the 1st
47:47
st sample that was encountered in the second sample
47:50
mple. So then are abundant system is just going to be
47:53
tal harvest Big H from the harvest survey.
47:55
That's absolute harvest, and then it's divided
47:58
by the harvest rate, which we've been
48:02
calculating so.
48:03
We are still using a technique that
48:06
was invented in 1930 and.
48:10
Hats off to you, Mr Lincoln.
48:13
Next slide.
48:17
I want to thank everybody at the bird banding
48:20
Lab and our communications
48:25
folks. Too many to name Bird banders researchers
48:28
and managers and everybody who's ever reported a
48:31
bird band.
48:32
2020 is been a really unusual
48:35
year, and this celebration was.
48:38
Way different than we anticipated when we started planning
48:41
last winter, but I've been thinking about how
48:45
in 1920.
48:46
Fred Lincoln became the first bird banding lab
48:49
chief, and they were coming out of a worldwide
48:52
influenza pandemic.
48:54
I know that the staff of the BBL has persevered
48:57
this year and prior to that, under difficult
49:01
conditions, and I know that they're going to continue to support
49:04
conservation efforts. And like Frederick Lincoln, I
49:07
think they're going to continue to do new and good things
49:10
and we thank them very much.
49:14
Next slide.
49:16
Questions.
49:19
Thanks for listening.
49:22
Thank you very much.
49:25
Thing is, it was great.
49:28
Your work your agencies work
49:33
k. I know a lot of collaborators being
49:36
really working hard and I think is I will say that.
49:40
To me at least, is it's impressive to see that.
49:44
They are really successful stories
49:47
Those that you are mentioning just like the goose
49:51
management. I mean, they are really successful stories
49:54
because how you guys were able to really
49:57
coordinate the entire California all the way to UConn to
50:01
really improve populations
50:05
and to me. I think that's like a long term project
50:08
with great successes in an I'm sure like
50:12
e this there are many more. If you start looking at all these
50:15
pieces that you guys have been.
50:16
Managing it is really outstanding to
50:19
see that and um I
50:22
think we're going to go for questions we
50:25
e do have a few questions in the
50:29
in our Q&A and.
50:32
The first question I'm going to
50:35
k is specifically for
50:38
you and is from Jasper and it says the U
50:41
ou calculate the reporting probability at all.
50:44
I think you mentioned a little bit in your talk about
50:48
it right? We do calculate the reporting
50:52
probability and again the one we were going to that we would end
50:55
up using in a in analysis.
51:00
It is going to be probably a little more
51:03
sophisticated and in terms of getting the variance estimation
51:06
and you're going to correct for some other things
51:10
that could potentially influence the
51:13
estimate, but literally you can
51:16
calculate it on the back of an envelope using the map that I showed you
51:21
there, so it's not rocket science at all by any means.
51:24
Thank you
51:27
Bam, bam following this topic
51:31
c, there is another question that it as a game
51:34
from Jasper it says can you account for deviations
51:37
from the ideal close population or
51:40
the result is just discarded if the result is too
51:44
far off.
51:45
So
51:48
with him.
51:50
So I
51:53
I'm not an expert on this, but
51:57
I think that.
51:58
That the
52:02
that the estimate does tend to be robust to having
52:06
violations of those assumptions.
52:08
But the problem
52:11
is, I think he hit it on the nail on the head there in that
52:15
how do you like so? For example in the
52:18
e example I showed you.
52:22
You could have an issue because the
52:25
harvest estimates are calculated by fly
52:28
away, and So what if you had?
52:31
A bunch of birds that they
52:34
got banned it and then and then. They tend to they
52:37
y made like a multi migration from one fly away to the
52:41
other so they get harvested over here. But you think that they were
52:44
but the your sample population was banded here so.
52:47
You never have to draw your universe big enough so that
52:51
it is truly a close population or you have to
52:54
figure out movement movements
52:57
movement patterns in another way and maybe adjust
53:01
t for it. So it is. I think it's one of the more difficult.
53:05
Problems about using
53:08
this technique? the Lincoln estimator
53:11
Good question, great question. Yeah, this is this is
53:14
s really really good question. In late like you
53:17
mentioned, is just like that is so like the
53:21
complicated part of this type of models and I do
53:24
o hope that in the near future
53:27
by having a lot more new technology that
53:30
allows us to track individuals and more individuals
53:34
all the time.
53:35
I hope we are going to find ways to solve like integrate all
53:39
this information and maybe gonna try to address
53:42
these questions, But yeah, it's definitely a good
53:45
question. Yeah so yeah, so telemetry would potentially be
53:49
one way you could tell.
53:51
And yeah, but.
53:53
Or a separate of estimation of
53:57
harvest, distribution and derivation, but a lot of work to
54:01
adjust absolutely.
54:02
Great, I have another question and I think this is
54:05
a little bit more general in I may be able to answer
54:08
this one and the question is do
54:12
o any University labs that are most influential to USGS
54:16
bird banding and I will say
54:20
that I could probably not
54:23
naming one specific lab or
54:27
University. I think most of the universities.
54:29
And I'll say most, because it's really when I look at
54:33
the bird banding permits most
54:36
t universities have one way or another participation in
54:39
Burr banding and all of them from their
54:42
type of work in perspective is how they are
54:46
basically advancing, not just.
54:48
Bird banding science but
54:52
t also involving and engaging with all the new generations
54:56
of biologists in students who really get
54:59
into verb ending. So I will say that all the
55:04
universities are having a really important role, not just science
55:07
but education and similar to
55:10
universities. We have most of the national
55:13
Wildlife refugees have banding
55:16
operations in even.
55:18
Organizations, NGOs who
55:21
have been running banding stations from long term have been
55:26
very influential on basically per banding and
55:30
they've been participating with us since 1920.
55:34
Let me see there are more
55:38
questions years, this one how has copied affected
55:41
the BBL and Fish and Wildlife Service banding operations in
55:45
Panama will let you answer the part of the Fish and Wildlife Service
55:48
because I think it. Do you have a lot of information about
55:51
it? Yeah I can yeah.
55:54
You want
55:57
me to answer it now. OK, yes
56:00
sorry. So one big thing. So I mentioned we have
56:04
these cooperative banding programs and one of them is where a
56:07
lot of division of migratory bird.
56:10
Refuge US Fish and Wildlife
56:13
Service Banders will go up and into Canada
56:16
and then do a lot of banding in the Northwest Territories
56:19
and scan in Saskatchewan, Alberta and Manitoba.
56:22
And.
56:24
So this year they couldn't go across the border
56:28
so they ended up switching at
56:32
switching and going and help and helping at refuges
56:36
along the northern border like
56:39
e Montana, North Dakota, an in South Dakota, so helping
56:43
in the United States switching around where their operations were
56:47
and there were two 2 Canadian wildlife
56:50
Service crews that were able to get out, but they had to
56:54
limit their areas.
56:54
They had to limit their operations
56:58
to very close to Winnipeg and
57:02
Saskatoon, so that if somebody got sick, they
57:05
could get medical attention now
57:08
than it was pretty bad. It's bad for goose banding
57:11
right? So because those remote communities like
57:14
the to pick they're up.
57:18
They're out there, it's isolated
57:21
You don't want somebody coming in and an and just giving
57:25
them a lot of starting up
57:29
a spreader event, and you're so far
57:32
from medical attention there, so the Canadian Wildlife Service
57:36
has not allowed
57:39
any field work in the Arctic and
57:43
d so all those Arctic goose banding
57:46
operations that they couldn't be done this year and.
57:48
Some of this stuff you can adjust
57:51
were analytically, but I mean it's hard to adjust for
57:55
zero because I said like I said, you want that
57:59
banding effort to happen every year.
58:02
So yes, yeah
58:05
lot of people did get out. A lot of PR Sir or waterfowl
58:09
surveys. Alot of waterfowl surveys in the spring got cancelled but I think by
58:13
the time banding season rolled around, people dealt
58:16
with it as well as it could. I think with Duck banding went very
58:20
well because people could get out and band close to their
58:23
houses and cars with ducks breed pretty much everywhere.
58:27
Thank you fam in Internet.
58:30
Of the BL, as you recall in
58:33
n my little introduction, one of the main
58:37
task that we have is issuing permits and of
58:41
f course, that issue permits and management
58:44
of data. Basically kind of got a
58:48
little bit complicated with some restrictions for some periods of time
58:51
but other than that we've been trying to just continuing with
58:55
all the regular day to day activities
58:58
with the BBL by working remotely but.
59:01
Yes, we had a lot of unexpected
59:05
college cancellations on certain projects
59:09
but I will say on the positive side
59:12
we were able to manage a
59:16
lot of the day to day operations of the BBL
59:19
So things are going well. I have more questions here. I'm going to go
59:23
with another one that I think I really
59:26
eally I will say like these questions. I hear a lot. Which is do you
59:30
think banding is still relevant in these high tech?
59:32
World and I think this is
59:35
I will say I really like these questions because it gives me the
59:38
opportunity to talk about how important is the bird banding lab
59:43
the bird banding data and in general preventing
59:47
science because it's an activity I will
59:50
say I will use the word traditional activity
59:53
because we have like 100 years of data
59:56
at least in the US for and we
60:00
And we have the ability to put bands on as many birds that we can catch.
60:04
And collect data at the population and
60:07
Community level that it's so useful for many
60:11
types of science and all the models that we do
60:14
in everything. So now that we have all these new technology coming in.
60:17
As you can imagine, every technique has
60:21
limitations in advantages, so I see
60:25
that bird banding will remain relevant
60:28
because now is the point we start integrating
60:32
better. They all they banding data that we knowing it
60:35
We can collect off at the population level if
60:39
need to versus the individual bird data that
60:42
we have with the new technology and that kind
60:46
of kind of connects to the one of the previous questions that.
60:48
Panhead with the modeling, perhaps by
60:52
doing integration of all these technologies, and
60:55
the I will use traditional methods, is how
60:59
we're going to basically improve science in advance
61:02
science to being able to answer
61:05
not just the questions that we have now, but hopefully the
61:08
questions of the feature.
61:09
So yeah, definitely is still relevant
61:13
And yeah, we will be here integrating with everyone else.
61:17
I have more questions
61:21
There's another one.
61:23
Where can data be viewed
61:26
on reported banzan? Is that data available per
61:29
species? Yes, you can go to the bird Banding Lab
61:33
website. It's very easy to find. Just look for Bird banding lab U as
61:36
yes and you will find all the information you need from.
61:41
Being able to request data look at
61:45
t data and find anything related to tuber
61:48
Bending science.
61:49

61:51
I have another question
61:54
Here is what does Pam Ciazza
61:57
challenges that lie ahead for BBL and
62:01
use of these data for waterfall conservation and management?
62:06

62:08
I.
62:10
We've been very concerned for years about
62:15
financial cuts to the bird Banding Lab, and they've become way more
62:19
efficient, but at some
62:22
point they need they need to be adequately funded because
62:26
they offer services.
62:28
And data and then they steward their
62:32
stewards of data that like as I tried to illustrate.
62:35
We use I mean in
62:39
fact somebody asked about Kovid and Scott Boomer
62:43
one of our biologists
62:46
He said, I hope we don't. Oh, I hope we don't lose banding
62:49
data 'cause we got by without the
62:52
survey data. But if we lost banding data especially
62:56
y for updating adaptive harvest management models
62:59
we were going to be lost it completely. We were going to
63:02
be in a pickle.
63:04
And
63:07
we haven't done. I will say it's probably the last
63:10
question that we will have is are there
63:13
e any plans to supplement verb ending with technologies
63:17
like RFID? Which are the
63:20
radio frequency identification?
63:23
This is really I will say a little bit
63:26
more. I can make this question living broader
63:30
and basically what are the I will say? What are the plans of
63:34
the BBL to incorporate all these new technologies
63:37
like the RFID, the person
63:40
is asking? And I think right now we are in.
63:45
We need to be else
63:48
that collaboration is key to improve
63:52
our work and we have a lot of plans
63:55
to coordinate.
63:56
To all those other repository's and organizations
64:00
who are hosting data
64:03
from various specific sources for
64:06
r example, telemetry data, move bank, or
64:09
models data which is tracking the limited tracking
64:13
data in Birds Canada.
64:16
Things like that. We hope that the BBL can really start.
64:20
Thinking big and collaborate with
64:23
everyone and we together as a way we can basically
64:27
host database that has connections with
64:30
everyone else and the data is always
64:34
connected. So banding data. We have demanding data we
64:37
manage appending data but we have a way to connect our
64:40
database with other datasets that have RFID
64:44
information or telemetry information or other new
64:48
technologies that are coming in. But I think just.
64:50
Thinking that we can work together with other groups and
64:54
organizations outside our lab
64:57
is probably the way that we're going to be able to
65:00
combine all these new data that is emerging.
65:04
And.
65:06
I think those are at least all the
65:09
questions and I don't think we
65:13
have more time for this. Pam, do you
65:16
have any comment or you want to highlight anything
65:19
that you have in mind?
65:21
I'm just a couple things so
65:24
o what you just said about sort
65:28
of integrating some of the newer technologies with banding I
65:31
I think from the analytical side
65:34
our division and branch is very interested in doing that and helping to design
65:38
studies so that the data are used for the.
65:42
Most efficient way
65:45
possible, and Secondly I would point out that
65:48
most waterfowl populations are.
65:51
Are doing very, very well.
65:53
And I really think that we were
65:56
our conservation success story and our
66:00
monitoring programs are a big part of that. Because if you don't know what's
66:03
happening then you can lose track of things and.
66:06
And then before you it, you've
66:09
a problem, so we
66:13
monitor and we make sure that every time the harvest, that
66:16
we permit is sustainable.
66:19
Yeah, that is right
66:23
that really went up following that comment I
66:26
I do see how they work that you
66:29
guys been doing is definitely a successful
66:33
story. And while on one side of the picture we see
66:37
many birds bird populations in
66:41
trouble. Waterfowl has been maintaining in really good shape so.
66:45
Yeah, definitely is a lot to learn
66:49
and really happy too.
66:51
To see that we
66:54
are thinking about it and we are preparing for
66:57
the for the near future.
66:59
And I
67:02
think this is this is all going to be all for today
67:06
and I really want to thank you all for attending this
67:09
one. And even if you don't see it live, I hope you can see
67:13
it later I'm recording
67:17
g and just please keep an eye on the
67:20
news from the USGS about other
67:24
events related to the Centennial of the BBL.
67:27
And please check our labs
67:30
website periodically. We will be posting information there
67:34
about other events.
67:35
And thank you very much and
67:39
have a nice day everyone.