Tribal Resources for Climate Change Vulnerability Assessments

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Detailed Description

Tribes have been actively engaged in efforts to anticipate and respond to climate impacts on their natural and cultural resources. And yet, some tribes have faced difficulties initiating and completing the critical first step of the climate adaptation planning process: an assessment of locally-specific climate risks that accounts for the unique priorities, values, and concerns of individual tribes. The Northwest Climate Adaptation Science Center has supported the creation of a suite of resources designed to enhance the capacity of Northwest and Great Basin tribes for completing vulnerability assessments to inform climate adaptation planning. These resources, developed in close partnership with tribal partners, include a Tribal Vulnerability Assessment Resources website designed to orient tribal staff and community members to the range of approaches and resources available for completing vulnerability assessments; an online Tribal Climate Tool that provides interactive maps, graphs, and reports summarizing projected changes in climate, and tailored to the unique geographies and impacts of concern to Northwest and Great Basin tribes; and a Tribal Climate Technical Support Desk that supports tribal staff through the vulnerability assessment process by providing rapid response to queries. View this webinar to learn more about these products as well as the collaborative process employed to ensure they would be useful and used by tribes.


Date Taken:

Length: 00:43:21

Location Taken: WA, US

Video Credits

Meade B. Krosby
Amy Snover
Elda Varela Minder


John Ossanna:  [00:05] To introduce our presenters, we have Dr. Amy Snover, who is the university director for the Northwest Climate Adaptation Science Center. Amy, go for it.

Dr. Amy Snover:  [00:14] Thank you. It's my pleasure to introduce Meade Krosby. She is the senior scientist here at the Climate Impacts Group at the University of Washington. She is also the university deputy director for the Northwest Climate Adaptation Science Center.

[00:33] I just want to tell you a couple of things about Meade. She works closely with land and wildlife managers to collaboratively understand and address climate impacts on species and ecosystems.

[00:48] Her current work includes vulnerability assessment and adaptation planning, large landscape conservation planning for climate resilience, and efforts to build a climate adaptation capacity in communities of practice.

[01:02] Dr. Krosby received a Bachelor of Science in biology from Cornell University and her PhD in biology from the University of Washington. Take it away, Meade.

Dr. Meade Krosby:  [01:18] Thank you, Amy. Thanks so much, everyone, for calling in today to learn more about our work. You might notice a slight modification [laughs] for the title of a key word. Probably I left it out when I sent you guys the title, but this one's important, Co‑producing Tribal Resources for Climate Change Vulnerability Assessment.

[01:39] That'll become clear why that word's important as I go along here. I'm going to talk about a project that we completed last winter, though in some ways it's really ongoing, aimed at enhancing the ability of tribal natural‑resource managers in the Northwest and the Great Basin to assess climate risks to tribally important natural and cultural resources.

[02:01] Today I'm going to be describing the suite of resources that we produced as part of this project. I'm also going to be describing the process that we employed to ethically and effectively co‑create them with our tribal partners to ensure that they'd be useful and used.

[02:16] I want to start by acknowledging that this effort was a partnership among university, tribal, and federal entities, including a large team from here, the Climate Impacts Group at the University of Washington, a key team member in Boise, Idaho, and a travel‑advisor group that I'm going to talk about more in a little bit.

[02:36] It was funded primarily by the Northwest Climate Adaptation Science Center and the Great Basin Landscape Conservation Cooperative, with additional funding from the Bureau of Indian Affairs and the Affiliated Tribes of Northwest Indians.

[02:51] Together, this team developed a suite of resources that were designed to help inform tribal efforts to assess and respond to climate risks to natural and culture resources. Just a quick overview ‑‑ these resources include a tribal‑climate tool. This is an interactive, online, climate‑data source.

[03:09] Also, a provision of summaries of climate impacts for Northwest and Great Basin tribes as well as the Tribal Vulnerability Assessment Resources website, which offers a user‑friendly, online orientation to vulnerability assessment for tribal staff and community members.

[03:31] Also, a tribal‑climate technical support desk. This offers rapid response to questions from tribal staff about climate‑change impacts, assessment, and response.

[03:44] These resources were developed as a direct response to work that was completed in 2015 by Don Sampson with ATNI in which he surveyed Columbia Basin tribes to assess their capacity to respond to climate change.

[03:59] What he found was that there were significant disparities among tribes in their capacity for climate‑change response, with some tribes making significant progress and others having difficulty just getting started.

[04:11] His work was funded by the Northwest Climate Adaptation Science Center to help identify areas where the Center could support tribal capacity for adaptations.

[04:20] Of the barriers to preparedness that Don identified some, such as social or political barriers, the CASC really could do little about. One in particular, which are the gaps in technical capacity for vulnerability assessment in some tribes, the CASC could do something about. The project was initiated in response to an identified need among tribes.

[04:45] To address these technical gaps in tribal capacity in the Northwest and the Great Basin, we designed a project that would provide climate data at the scale of tribal decision‑making that would support tribal staff through the vulnerability‑assessment process by providing training and technical assistance if they have questions about the process as well as making the vulnerability‑assessment process more accessible to tribal staff by developing a curated online collection of available tools, guides, data sets, and approaches.

[05:16] The scope of work was designed in partnership with the CASC and the Great Basin Landscape Conservation Cooperative. It involved representatives from tribal organizations affiliated with the CASC and the Great Basin LCC.

[05:33] We formalized this tribal involvement in the project through convening a tribal advisory group and included representatives from tribal organizations, Bureau of Union Affairs, Tribal Climate Network, as well as indigenous scholars on climate adaptations. All of the work and the effort from its initiation through its completion was done in partnership with tribes.

[05:55] This was really key because as project PI and the team that was primarily comprised of western scientists who are not tribal members, we couldn't possibly anticipate what resources were most relevant and culturally appropriate for tribes. Tribes are the expert on tribes.

[06:13] So ensuring the usefulness this work, it was going to be really necessary that we have intentional iterative tribal engagement throughout the process. When we started our work, the climate data that had been widely available to tribes was limited primarily to things like average annual temperature and precipitation across reservations.

[06:41] If you're a tribe and you wanted to specifically how your tribe might be affected by climate change, what impact you might be seeing, there are a couple of sites where you might be able to look up your reservation and see how these really general things might be changing.

[06:54] We knew just from our own work with tribes that this information isn't that useful to tribal decision‑making. Tribes are interested in a lot of different kinds of geographic areas not just reservations. They're interested in a lot of more downstream impact. Sometimes literally things like stream flow, stream temperature is affecting things like salmon.

[07:14] We knew that we were going to have to work with tribes to figure out what data would be most useful to them and how to get it to them. Early on in the project, we delivered a survey to tribes asking which impacts and what types of geographies they are most concerned with. Again, to know what information is going to be most useful, we have to ask the intended user for this project.

[07:35] What we found was much like we had assumed that tribes are in fact concerned about diverse impacts. Highest on the list would be impacts on species or habitats.

[07:47] Next, declining snow pack and glaciers, changes in stream temperature and stream flows with the wildfire, drought, flooding, changes in invasive species, pest pathogens, increase in sediments in streams, heavy rain events, ocean acidification, sea level rise, warmer ocean temperature, more extreme events. None of these is mean annual temperature and mean annual precipitation.

[08:10] They're also concerned about diverse geography. Yes, many tribes are concerned about changes on the reservation, but they're also concerned about changes to watersheds of concern for them, ceded areas, usually the [inaudible] areas where the tribally specific kinds of geographies and many other that don't fall into any of these broader categories.

[08:35] Most tribes are interested in more than one geography. They're planning across a range of geographies that they use for different purposes. They might be worried about infrastructure on the reservation, whereas they might be worried about changes in species ‑‑ first food, the crops, they're usually on the customary, which is often much larger than the reservation.

[08:55] We realized that to provide climate data that was going to be useful to tribes, we had to ask each tribe over what specific geographic areas they were making decisions. We reached out to all 84 tribes in the Northwestern Great Basin to ask over what areas they like to receive climate data.

[09:11] We didn't go directly to a tribe's natural resources staff, their GIS technician or a tribal community member. We wrote formal letters to every tribal council chairperson for all 84 tribes in the Northwestern Great Basin notifying them that we would be making this information request of their staff for these geographies.

[09:32] Contacting tribal councils first before engaging the tribal staff or community members was a way of demonstrating respect for tribal sovereignty called "going in the front door." It's the best practice for any engagement with tribes.

[09:45] We then sent another round of letters when we were ready to release the tribal climate tool that I'll show you in a minute to confirm with each tribe the geographies that we've receive from them, and that was OK for these geographies to be shared.

[10:00] Because this tool was going to be publicly available, we had to let the tribes know this and be sure not to send any sensitive information they wouldn't want seen by the public. Again, this is called obtaining free, prior, and informed consent. It's also a hallmark of ethical engagement of the tribe.

[10:20] The information we received back from the tribe about the geographies that they were concerned with again shows that there was a wide range of geographies and that we couldn't have anticipated these ahead of time using broad categories.

[10:31] We did see lots of interest in knowing impacts across watersheds from large basins to smaller watersheds or specific areas like Riots here in Washington. We also saw a lot of tribal‑specific kinds of geographies like traditional or ancestral territories, treaty areas, usual and accustomed areas.

[10:51] We saw some municipal boundaries, cities, counties, or groups of counties, and then other really unique geographies, everything west of this line or this valley. We use that information then and the information on what impacts were of concern to develop a tribal climate tool, which summarizes across those geographies of interest to tribes.

[11:19] The impacts or the changes that we're going to see in a variety of climate and climate‑related variables that correspond to those impacts of concern. I'm going to see if I can pull this off live here and show you. Hopefully, you're seeing...Did that work out all right? Can I...Do you guys see that?

John:  [11:42] Yup.

Dr. Krosby:  [11:44] I thought I would just quickly...It's, I think, more effective and faster just to show you the tool real quick live. The tribal climate tool, you arrive in this little disclaimer about the areas of interest.

[11:59] If you're a tribe and you come on here and do something on here ‑‑ you change your mind about sharing a geography ‑‑ you can only contact us to have it removed. Again, a disclaimer about these not being legally binding boundaries and the ability to change them.

[12:13] You can then select your tribe. I'm going to choose the Makah, because then we can see their coastal tribes. You get to see their information there. You can go to the tool or you can take a tour.

[12:27] We work really hard to make this easily used by a broad range of users from those who may have really advanced technical GIS capacity or climate capacity to maybe a community member who doesn't have any training in this but wants to see what is coming up for their tribe in the future under recent scenarios.

[12:47] You can take a tour, which I'm not going to do right now, that will walk you through the whole thing and everything that it offers, or you could go straight to the tool, which I'm going to do.

[12:57] When you get to the tool, up here you can pick a tribe again and you can also pick...We offered up to three custom geographies, as well as a reservation for every tribe that has one.

[13:09] The Makah has three options. They gave us two custom geographies, as well as their reservation. I'm going to stick with their usual and accustomed area, which we're seeing outlined here.

[13:18] You can explore a bunch of climate‑related variables, either spatially or through a graph. I'm going to start with the map. Each of these has help buttons all along the way to tell you more information about these.

[13:37] We're looking right now at annual total precipitation. You can also look at these. Also, maybe I'll just pull up a not so good news of future summer precipitation. You can look in inches or millimeters. Choose your unit. Choose your time period.

[13:56] I'm looking at the end of the century for higher emission scenario. You can see over the selected area how spatially that is likely to change, but then we also provide a narrative summary of the change, reminding you of the time period and the higher emission scenario.

[14:18] We expect to see precipitation on average across this area to be this amount, a decrease of this amount from the historical value. You can also see that in a table form. You can also download the map data.

[14:36] We try to provide it in a bunch of different ways that might speak to different kinds of users or learners. You can do that in a graph. You can see the model average across time periods and change in precipitation. You can also see individual model values if you click on the dots in each of the time categories.

[15:02] Then you can also, again, see all of that summarized in a table. I'm not going to run through everything offered on the tool, but I did want to show just the range of different kinds of data sets that we have from continuous raster data to if you want to look at something like stream flow.

[15:21] We have point data in here, because our stream flow projections are based on where stream gauges are available for which this modeling has been done. The nearest one here, which will give you a sense of what may be going on in this region is at the Elwha River.

[15:35] You can see the percent changes that happened. You can, again, look at it as a graph. We also have line data, so you can look at stream temperature, for example. These are projections from...

[15:51] One thing that should be clear as I move through these, what we were doing was really cross‑walking the impacts of concerns to the tribes in our region with all of the best available data to match that concern and give them some insight into what might be coming under different scenarios.

[16:08] For that raster data earlier ‑‑ things like changes in precipitation ‑‑ that's all coming from Makah. This is coming from the Northwest project, looking at projected future changes in extreme temperature. That point data on stream flows is coming from 6, 20, and 60 projects.

[16:27] We were drawing from our knowledge of the best available data for all of these different kinds of impacts to pull it into the tool and then think about how to visualize it in a way that would be most useful for the tribe.

[16:38] For stream temperature, for example, it's viewed in different categories of warming. These are important, because there's different thresholds for things that might be important to tribes like salmon.

[16:50] You can highlight. For example, you can click on and off these different categories so that you could pick out the streams, for example, that might be cold water refugia for certain fish.

[17:01] Again, you can see a summary of the change that might be coming over the whole area for the tribe in addition to looking at the individual streams. We see the categories of different temperatures of streams changing. The percent of streams that fall into those categories changing over time and becoming warmer under different scenarios.

[17:22] Then I might show actually two more really quickly. Vegetation composition. They go back to the map. This is another way of doing the data here using MC2, a profit‑based model of potential future vegetation. We use a slider here.

[17:40] This is what we found to be the most intuitive way to look at potential changes in vegetation over the area of interest. You can see here, for example, by scrolling between what's changing from a conifer forest to a projected more mixed forest. You can see by changing the scenario, what a huge difference it makes sticking to a low‑emission scenario versus a high‑emission scenario, for example.

[18:08] Again, you can look at the table here which summarizes the percent of the area of interest that has different vegetation cover under different time horizons and emission scenarios.

[18:22] Then lastly, I'll show relative sea level which is using hot, off‑the‑presses data that was developed by the Climate Impact Group and our partners, Sea Grant, and know where to get this data that is showing much more likely‑to‑be‑accurate estimates of sea level rise that take into account vertical wind motion in the Northwest, in Washington, which for example, up here near the Bay, for the most part it's been rising as fast as sea level rises, not faster, and so you can see the difference. You would get a very different estimate if you were not taking into account that vertical wind motion.

[19:07] You can look at potential. You can click on an area and see, for the end of the century under high‑emission scenario, here there's a 50 percent chance that sea‑level rise will exceed 1.2 feet versus a 99 percent chance for that segment that it actually won't rise, but you will exceed 03 feet.

[19:35] At the highest, if you want to see your risk, if you really want to explore that higher tail‑end of what could happen, there's a one percent chance that they could exceed 3.9 feet. Again, the very latest models are available in this tool that we could gather from across our region.

[19:59] Another thing the tool can do is it can create a summary report for you. It can take all of the things that you can explore through the tool and you can click which ones you want to see, which variables you want to see, what units you want to see it in, for what time periods and emission [inaudible] with them all selected. You can download a report that summarizes all of this for your area.

[20:26] You can have this handy PDF if you just want to go in and get the numbers that you're going to put into a report for an assessment. I'm going to leave the tool then for a minute, hopefully, and go back, to presentation.

[20:48] Getting those geographies and the impacts of concern to tribes was key to delivering information that would be relevant to the tribe's decision‑making to get so much closer than looking at just change in minimum temperature and precipitation for a reservation.

[21:07] Now the tribes can see changes in variables that are much closer to the things that are of concern for them over the areas that are of concern for them, and takes the additional step of summarizing that information. What is the overall change over the area that you care about under different scenarios?

[21:25] This is the kind of information that we are often, at the Climate Impact Group, approached to do for counties, for cities, for parks, for all kinds of entities. Typically, an entity would have to contract with the university to get this kind of information for some fee. That could be tens of thousands of dollars.

[21:46] We've now made this information available for free for every tribe in the Northwest and Great Basin so that they can better leverage the resources they have towards an assessment, instead of getting the data to begin with. We were really pleased at how this turned out and also its reception.

[22:05] But we also wanted to make sure that we weren't just...I'd say one more thing before I move on to the tool, which is that in addition to working with tribes to figure out what kind of information they wanted in the tool, and over what areas, we did a lot of user testing to make sure that the visualizations were working for them.

[22:31] That the tool was intuitive for its use and we did user testing, with a bunch of different tribes and a bunch of different kinds of users from technically advanced folks to folks with very little experience, working with climate data to make sure that this was working for folks with the broad range of experience with this kind of information.

[22:54] I cannot tell you how much this tool changed, from when we started to when we finished, based on that user testing to make the information easier to use, iterative user testing and feedback. Every few weeks, [laughs] we instituted some random testing and that was key to getting this to a place where folks found it helpful, useful, and intuitive.

[23:17] The other thing I want to say is that producing the tool, on its own, wasn't enough. Another resource we provided as part of the tribal climate technical support desk ‑‑ to provide rapid response to questions about our project products and then a vulnerability assessment process more generally, so any tribal staff or family member or partner could call.

[23:42] That means this is my phone, [laughs] although that can usually be my cell phone. They could call if they have any question about the vulnerability of the process, about climate data, about anything that is relevant to their work in preparing for a climate change.

[23:59] We received calls. I actually need to update my number. I want to say it's probably something around 12 to 15 tribes in Northwest and Great Basin, but a lot of those tribes have called more than once and they call from the rest of the region. The calls that we received were very informative for guiding our work.

[24:22] They ranged from, "I have been working with construction all my life. I am now the environmental director of my small tribe and I don't know anything about climate change, but I know it's really important. Where do I get started?" to "Our tribe is monitoring snowpacks. What kind of data loggers should we be using?"

[24:46] To "I have a vulnerability assessment due next month. Here is what I've done so far. What do I need to do next to get this over the finish line?" to "We're developing some habitat models. We would like to find the latest fire risk data to incorporate into our model. Where do we get this?"

[25:02] The questions were all over the map in terms of where people were in their process, their technical capacity, the kinds of resources that they needed. The questions that we received at the help desk was helpful on its own, for those who were calling, but it was also incredibly helpful for us for guiding the resource that we were providing.

[25:26] That support was key to getting people to use...Eventually, when the tool came out, offering that support at the help desk to help people use tools has been incredibly important as well, but the questions along the way were also very important for guiding the development of the tool and also a website that we developed, the Tribal Vulnerability Assessment Resources website.

[25:51] I'm going to switch one more time here and take you to the website. There we go. Just easier to go right there. The website that we developed, again, we were trying to provide a curated online collection of available tools, guides, data sets and approaches for vulnerability assessment, geared towards tribal staff and community members.

[26:19] There are a lot of resources out there and it can be overwhelming for folks to figure out where to get started, like drinking from the fire hose. We wanted to provide the water fountain, so the orientations to the things that are out there, just a few key examples and key questions to get people started.

[26:39] We designed the website based on the questions that we got from the help desk and the kind of questions that we get in our work with tribes. Again, starting for that person who is just getting started and wants to know, "How does the climate affect this change? Why does this matter for tribes?"

[26:56] Then there's a couple of orienting questions below this, like, "How is the climate changing and why does it matter for tribes? How is the climate going to change for my tribe?" In any one of these, if you go into the box, we have tried to provide everything from the climate101 so you could do a little intro to climate science.

[27:19] We have videos available from the National Climate Assessment and elsewhere to help, just three‑minutes videos to get you started. If you want to take the deep dive, you can go into the National Climate Assessment climate science supplement. We have some frequently asked questions on climate change, science, and then the deep dive if you want to go into it.

[27:44] We try to curate this for folks so they could start whatever it was that they were in their process. Maybe they want to look at climate impact by sector or by region. We did this for each of these key questions that we were receiving, and so for how climate change for my tribe, you can get to tribal climate tool that I just showed you.

[28:07] If you're in a region ‑‑ again, this is designed for the Northwest and Great Basin, but there's also other tools out there we offer ‑‑ you can go to climate explorer or [inaudible] adapt or climate mapper and then lots of other resources through the Bureau of Indian Affairs.

[28:24] A lot of other tribes are just wondering , "How can they assess their climate vulnerabilities?" The tool provides that exposure and information, but then what do you do next? Some tribes are interested in taking a very indigenous approach. Some may want to use a purely Western science‑based approach and others may want to combine approaches.

[28:44] Depending on what they want to do, we provide a few key resources, like guide books, to provide, again, a guide for how they could do these kinds of approaches and then some key resources.

[28:58] The database have tons of different examples of tribal assessments, a video on how to combine these two sources of information, how to combine Western science with indigenous knowledge to do this kind of work and then examples from tribes who have done this.

[29:16] Many tribes also would like to engage their communities, their use in the government and assessment. We provide resources and examples for doing that and also resource and examples for how to use funding and get support for tribal climate change vulnerability assessment efforts.

[29:37] This website, again, not every tribe is going to want to give a call to the help desk and as I was providing resources to folks from the help desk, [laughs] this is really an online help desk for folks that has a lot of what I would have given them anyway. It can be one‑stop shop to get them started, oriented from wherever they are in the process.

[29:57] Then they can go on to more specific resources elsewhere. Then, again, we didn't want to just have this tool and this website and then the help desk. We're trying to revise, come at this from a lot of different angles and so we also want to make sure that we're providing training through workshops and webinars.

[30:15] We went to different areas of the Great Basin and the Northwest through Nevada, Eastern Oregon, and the Puget Sound region, and invited the tribal government staff and community members from those regions to come to workshops and bring their laptops and we would sit down and provide an orientation to a vulnerability assessment and also hands‑on training on these tools.

[30:46] What we have found is that, even if you make the tools really easy to use, even if you broadcast their availability, there's still this barrier to actually engaging with these things until people sit down, get their hands on them, and start working with them, that initial barrier, that intimidation factor.

[31:07] It's so helpful to offer this hands‑on training just to get people feeling comfortable using it and familiar with it. Then they can share that with other staff or community members in their tribe. We also made sure to include funding in our grant to support tribes to come to these workshops.

[31:27] We ahead of time had money set aside to support tribal staff and community members to travel to these workshops. We made sure again to go to them to make participation easier. We didn't have them all in Seattle. We encouraged cohorts, so two to three participants per tribe, so they could have a team within their tribe working on this.

[31:50] We had lots of small‑group work to encourage network‑building, so it wasn't just me talking the whole time. We also brought the tool‑developer, Katherine Hegewisch from Idaho, to the meeting to get more feedback on the tool so we could get more feedback on the website.

[32:05] Then we again did another iteration of fine‑tuning based on what we saw from folks in the workshops and the questions that they asked. The key here was that we are making sure to not just deliver these resources but to take additional steps to build capacity through training and through encouraging the development of communities of practice.

[32:28] Tribes can meet other folks nearby who are doing similar work and develop teams within their own tribes where that wasn't present. Then the last thing I wanted to note was that we were really pleased with the success of this work, the whole team. The university, federal and tribal partners were all really pleased with where this turned out.

[32:51] We wanted to share the story of the success of this effort. The thing I wanted to make sure to communicate was that before ever even talking to UDub, meaning our University of Washington press folks, about crafting a press release, we first had to make sure to ask our tribal partners if this attention would be welcome.

[33:13] Think carefully about how to craft a story that would serve the tribes, that would draw attention to climate impacts these by tribes, that would emphasize the leadership in responding and use our experience as an example of successful partnerships among tribes, federal institutions, and university.

[33:32] To do this, to center the tribes in the narrative and have them tell their own story, we developed a shared press release. It wasn't just UDub releasing this. We released it with Affiliated Tribes of Northwest Indians and the Bureau of Indian Affairs, one of our tribal partners in the Makah tribe. That made sure that they were listed as contacts as well if there was further questions.

[33:53] There've been a bunch of stories that have come out that have highlighted this effort. In all of these, I feel really good about the fact that all of these stories are really centered on the tribes and tell the story from the tribal perspective and how this work helps support their good work.

[34:16] Again, one of the key principles in doing this work in partnership with tribes in an ethical and effective way was to center the tribes in our project communications. Then one last thing I wanted to note is that the funding for this work ended last winter. The tribal technical support hub is open, so I still get calls. I still get emails, and I'm happy to answer them.

[34:42] Again, a key thing that I've found in working with tribes, and I think this is really true for most partnerships particularly with tribes and communities, is to commit to sustain the partner relationships. The relationships don't end when the project ends. I'm fortunate that I have some funding that can help cover that time. It's not a huge amount of time.

[35:03] It's just making sure that non‑tribal partners don't disappear when the projects end. This is really important for maintaining trust in our institutions and in us individually in this work. Project, products, and outcomes. Again, we have produced this climate data and resources that's tailored to the needs and the capacities of Northwest and Great Basin tribes.

[35:30] We have resulted in some enhanced tribal capacity in communities of practice for climate change vulnerability assessment. I say that with some confidence because we built evaluation into our work. For example, evaluations from our workshops. We know that folks left feeling like they had a better handle on climate impacts and working with climate data.

[35:53] They felt that they had developed their networks among different tribes and in their own tribes in doing this work. We're also working on developing a scholarship aimed at performing coproduction of actually climate science.

[36:08] I'm working on a paper right now on bridging the divide between available and desired climate resources for tribes and other communities as well as lessons learned from the climate help desk. There's a lot of interest in climate hotlines. Would they be used? Would they be effective? We have some experience now with that and can tell some stories there and lessons learned.

[36:32] Then we also have this very different footprint on the landscape. If you were going to look at climate impacts on tribes based just on reservations, for example, you would get a very different answer than if you looked at the impacts on the lands that tribes have identified for themselves as being important into the future.

[36:49] There's opportunity there to take a more realistic look at the kinds of impacts of concern to tribes over the areas of concern to tribes. Just one last note on summarizing the practices that we tried to take through this work to ethically and effectively co‑produce this work with tribes. This is repeating the things that I highlighted throughout the talk.

[37:16] I would just say that these are specific tribes, yet I think a lot of these would stand for any kind of partnership with any community. One is intentional, iterative engagement throughout the project. Respecting tribal sovereignty, and using tribal information ethically. Making sure to, as part of a project, build capacity in communities of practice as well as just supplying products and tools.

[37:43] Making sure you have helped build that expertise to use that tool or those resources. Also, networks for folks to rely on as they engage with those resources. Centering tribes in project communications. That could be true for any partner, but really making sure that the success is shared and that it serves the communities that were really the focus of this effort.

[38:11] Finally, committing to sustained relationships. Making sure that, when the project ends, we don't disappear but we stay engaged to help maintain that trust and continue serving that community and that relationship. Thank you so much.

John:  [38:30] Thank you for the presentation, Meade. I got a quick question for you, Meade. Looks like a pretty cool system you got developed there. Are there any plans to expand this to other regions or locations or anything like that? Have you talked to any other tribes or anything like that to work with them?


Dr, Krosby:  Yes. This is an ongoing conversation. I get contacted by tribes from outside of the Northwest and Great Basin asking, "Is this available for them? Do I know of a resource like this that's available for them? We've been talking to a bunch of different potential partners on how to expand this. I think there's definitely interest.

[39:14] It's just a matter of what the right partnership would look like to make something like this happen in other regions, the timing, funding, and the usual considerations. It's in discussion. I'll leave it at that.

John:  [39:31] Ann says, "Great presentation." I also say a great presentation. Is the data also organized on a watershed scale?

Dr. Krosby:  [39:41] It's not. We didn't do any of this for common categories or buckets of geographies across the entire scale of the Northwest and Great Basin. They were done specifically for each tribe. For many tribes, they did request a watershed or these three watersheds, but they're all at different scales.

[40:06] One of the reasons that we didn't do it for all watersheds, for example in the Northwest and Great Basin, I believe it's the USGS that already has a tool that does provide a number of climate variables at the HUC level. I can't remember which HUCs it is. It might be for a range of nested HUC scales. We didn't want to repeat something that had already been done.

[40:32] Then we also thought it would be potentially more overwhelming, like less accessible than just, "Pick your tribe, and pick the region that you gave us" if we just had a whole thing for watershed. We didn't do it for all watersheds in Northwest. It also would have been a question of at what scale. HUC 12s, 8s, or 6s?

[40:52] It just was going to be a lot of data to handle, a lot of work, and maybe not necessarily that much easier for tribes to use than just giving them what they actually wanted for each tribe. That's a long answer of saying no. We didn't do it for all watersheds across the Northwest or Great Basin.

John:  [41:12] Thank you for answering that now. With that, I will say thank you again, Meade, and thank you, Elda, for your support in this webinar series. Thank you, everyone, who participated. Oop. Looks like we got one quick question. How can we integrate with other USGS climate adaptation science centers? Looks like a good question. [laughs]

Dr. Krosby:  [41:43] I would love more specificity on that question...

John:  [41:49] I think of the Southwest climate adaptation science center and working with Althea Walker. Who is the tribal liaison there.

Dr. Krosby:  [42:00] We've explored the idea of expanding the tools through the climate adaptation science centers. It just wasn't going to work logistically for a number of reasons, at least not at this time but maybe in the future. I've talked to Althea about this. There is interest in expanding this through that. It's just a matter of capacity and timing.

[42:31] That may or may not happen through the CASC network. It may happen. I'm talking to some other folks that are also interested in doing this in ways that could bring in the CASC network but just not rely primarily on the CASC network to get this done. There's a lot of interest.

[42:49] Again, it's logistically challenging to take exactly what we did and ramp it up to the whole US through the network. We'll see.

John:  [43:02] OK. Very cool. With that, like I said, I'll call it a day. Thank you, everyone, for your participation. Thank you very much. Have a good day.

Dr. Krosby:  [43:13] Thank you.