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CVO Scientists Develop Innovative Tools for Improved Volcano Monitoring

Camera captures SO2 released from Kīlauea's summit vent. HVO scient...
Camera captures SO2 released from Kīlauea's summit vent. HVO scientist tests the network link between the instrument and the Hawaiian Volcano Observatory. (Credit: Kern, Christoph Public domain.)

Innovative monitoring and data transmittal increase eruption warning time.

Research and development scientists design, build, and test equipment for monitoring volcanoes in the U.S. and around the world. New instruments, software, and hardware developed by the USGS enable scientists to acquire, process, and interpret data quickly and effectively. Their work provides greater safety for field scientists, and increased warning time for officials and the public, thereby saving lives and property.

New tools support automated methods for measuring and transmitting volcano data.

Deploying spider volcano-monitoring equipment in the crater of Moun...
Work is done to improve the operation of remote monitoring equipment known as a "spider." Spiders have been deployed around Mount St. Helens to monitor seismic activity, and collect information on possible ground deformation. Spiders can be refitted to collect infrasound data. Monitoring infrasound is effective for tracking activity occurring near and around the volcanic vent, providing information regarding volcanic behavior in both eruptive and non-eruptive states. View to the east. (Credit: Sherrod, David. Public domain.)

Satellite technologies support careful measurements of ground deformation through InSAR. Ground-based RADAR can detect dense ash clouds in all-weather conditions. Thermal infrared cameras measure lava temperatures, and a new ultraviolet camera creates images of sulfur dioxide content in real time, allowing direct correlation with other geophysical data. Airborne and field geophysical monitoring can identify zones of weakened rock and wetted sub-surface that can indicate zones more susceptible to collapse. Scientists are improving earthquakes sensors' capability to detect sound waves (infrasound) that can record volcanic sound waves from tens to hundreds of miles away. The research and development group continues to convert seismic monitoring equipment from analog to digital format to increase the quality of the data and to accommodate the spectrum of radio frequencies available. New technologies allow for more rapid and reliable methods for data transmission from instruments on the volcano to CVO. A new telemetry system throughout the Cascade Range strengthens capabilities for reliable data transmission.

Spider instrument packages afford greater safety and efficiency.

A principal objective has been to adopt new technologies that integrate many instruments into a single package to lower power requirements, reduce instrument footprint on sensitive landscapes, be portable for rapid deployment into remote areas, and transmit data effectively back to the CVO. These requirements were met during the 2004-2008 eruption of Mount St. Helens when CVO engineers developed the Spider monitoring unit. The Spider houses several instruments in one container to detect earthquakes, ground swelling and contractions, as well as changes in gas chemistry from emitted volcanic fumes. The instrument spider can be deployed by helicopter, and reduces dangers to scientists who previously were required to spend long periods of time in hazardous volcanic areas. When volcano conditions are stable, scientists deploy permanent stations that use similar instrument packages for long-term volcano monitoring.