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January 31, 2024

Kīlauea volcano is not erupting. Increased earthquake activity and inflationary ground deformation at Kīlauea’s summit began occurring during the early morning hours of January 31, 2024, indicating movement of magma in the subsurface.   

HVO/USGS Volcanic Activity Notice

Volcano: Kilauea (VNUM #332010)

Current Volcano Alert Level: WATCH
Previous Volcano Alert Level: ADVISORY

Current Aviation Color Code: ORANGE
Previous Aviation Color Code: YELLOW

Issued: Wednesday, January 31, 2024, 4:41 AM HST
Source: Hawaiian Volcano Observatory
Notice Number: 2023/H333
Location: N 19 deg 25 min W 155 deg 17 min
Elevation: 4091 ft (1247 m)
Area: Hawaii

Volcanic Activity Summary:

Kīlauea volcano is not erupting. Increased earthquake activity and inflationary ground deformation at Kīlauea’s summit began occurring during the early morning hours of January 31, 2024, indicating movement of magma in the subsurface.   

The USGS Hawaiian Volcano Observatory is raising the volcano alert level/aviation color code for Kīlauea from ADVISORY/YELLOW to WATCH/ORANGE due to this activity.

At this time, it is not possible to say with certainty if this activity will lead to an eruption; the activity may remain below ground. However, an eruption in Kīlauea’s summit region, within Hawai‘i Volcanoes National Park and away from infrastructure, is one potential outcome. Patterns of earthquake activity and ground deformation are concentrated south of the caldera region. Any new eruptive activity could occur in or near Halemaʻumaʻu crater or the region south of Kīlauea caldera, within the closed area of Hawaiʻi Volcanoes National Park. 

HVO is in constant communication with Hawai‘i Volcanoes National Park as this situation evolves. The activity is confined entirely within the park.

HVO continues to closely monitor this activity. Should activity change significantly, a new Volcanic Activity Notice will be issued. 

Hazards are present on Kīlauea and are described below. Residents and visitors should stay informed and follow County of Hawai‘i and Hawaiʻi Volcanoes National Park guidelines. 

For more information about the meaning of volcano alert levels and aviation color codes, see 

Recent Observations:
[Volcanic cloud height] N/A
[Other volcanic cloud information] N/A
[Ballistics] N/A
[Lava flow/dome] N/A
[Lava flow] N/A


Hazard Analysis: 

Kīlauea summit eruptive activity over the past several years has occurred at the base of Halemaʻumaʻu crater and on the downdropped block, within the closed area of Hawaiʻi Volcanoes National Park. During Kīlauea summit eruptions, the high level of volcanic gas—primarily water vapor (H2O), carbon dioxide (CO2), and sulfur dioxide (SO2)—being emitted is the primary hazard of concern, as this hazard can have far-reaching effects downwind. Passive volcanic degassing can occur from within Halemaʻumaʻu crater even during periods of no eruptive activity. As SO2 is released from the summit, it reacts in the atmosphere to create the visible haze known as vog (volcanic smog) that has been observed downwind of Kīlauea. Vog creates the potential for airborne health hazards to residents and visitors, damages agricultural crops and other plants, and affects livestock. For more information on gas hazards at the summit of Kīlauea, please see: Vog information can be found at  

Other significant hazards also remain around Kīlauea caldera from Halemaʻumaʻu crater wall instability, ground cracking, and rockfalls that can be enhanced by earthquakes within the area closed to the public. This underscores the extremely hazardous nature of the rim surrounding Halemaʻumaʻu crater, an area that has been closed to the public since early 2008.   
For discussion of Kīlauea hazards, please see:
The Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO) continues to closely monitor Kīlauea Volcano. 

Please see the Hawaiʻi Volcanoes National Park website for visitor information: 


Next Notice:

Kīlauea updates will be issued daily. Should volcanic activity change significantly, a new VAN will be issued. Regularly scheduled updates are posted on the HVO website at  

More Information:

Subscribe to these messages:
Summary of volcanic hazards from eruptions:
Recent earthquakes in Hawaiʻi (map and list):
Explanation of Volcano Alert Levels and Aviation Color Codes:

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