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HVO staff are conducting the annual Mauna Loa GPS campaign. During the survey, GPS instruments are deployed at established benchmarks so that their recorded positions can be compared with those from previous years to discern subtle patterns of ground deformation associated with volcanic activity. 

Color photograph of tripod with GPS on lava flow and cabin in the background
Survey GPS data augment the permanent, continuously recording GPS instruments in HVO's monitoring network. In this photo, a survey tripod is established over a benchmark the rim of Moku‘āweoweo, the caldera at the summit of Mauna Loa; Hawai‘i Volcanoes National Park Mauna Loa Summit Cabin is visible in the background of this image. USGS image by A. Ellis.
Color photograph of tripod with GPS on it on lava flow with helicopter in the background
A benchmark on Mauna Loa being surveyed by GPS campaign instruments. The metal disk on the ground beneath the tripod is the benchmark, which is cemented to the lava flow surface. USGS photo by A. Ellis.
Color photograph of GPS on tripod on lava flow with mountains in the background
Another GPS survey benchmark being occupied on Mauna Loa, with views of Hualālai and Haleakalā in the background. USGS photo by A. Ellis.
Color photograph of yellow tripods and boxes organized on pavement
GPS campaign equipment being staged prior to deployment on Mauna Loa for the annual survey. Temporary GPS receivers and antennas are placed on tripods centered over benchmarks, which serve as a reference point for centering of the antenna. The equipment is left in place to collect data for a couple of days at each site. USGS photo by A. Ellis.

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