During the summers of 2008 and 2009 the USGS conducted bathymetric surveys from West Ship Island, Miss., to Dauphin Island, Ala., as part of the Northern Gulf of Mexico (NGOM) Ecosystem Change and Hazard Susceptibility project. The survey area extended from the shoreline out to approximately 2 kilometers and included the adjacent passes (fig. 1). The bathymetry was primarily used to create a topo-bathymetric map and provide a base-level assessment of the seafloor following the 2005 hurricane season. Additionally, these data will be used in conjunction with other geophysical data (chirp and side scan sonar) to construct a comprehensive geological framework of the Mississippi Barrier Island Complex. The culmination of the geophysical surveys will provide baseline bathymetry necessary for scientists to define and interpret seafloor habitat for this area and for scientists to predict future geomorpholocial changes of the islands with respect to climate change, storm impact, and sea-level rise. Furthermore, these data provide information for feasibility of barrier island restoration, particularly in Camille Cut, and for the preservation of historical Fort Massachusetts. For more information refer to http://ngom.usgs.gov/gomsc/mscip/index.html.
Since bathymetric surveys have often been conducted for navigational purposes, soundings have traditionally been referenced to a water level datum using tide gages and tide models. Bathymetric measurements referenced to a Global Positioning System (GPS) is a more accurate way of representing water depth and has been implemented in the acquisition and processing procedures for these datasets. Previous single-beam bathymetric studies performed at the USGS Center for Coastal and Marine Science have successfully referenced bathymetric measurements to GPS (DeWitt and others, 2007; Hansen 2008 and 2009). The 2008-2009 bathymetry surveys were conducted as a test to (1) develop acquisition and processing technology utilizing both single beam and swath bathymetry survey methods together, (2) reference both types of measurements to GPS rather than water level, and (3) compare the differences between methods in acquisition and processing. Results of the survey are explained in greater detail within this report.
To acquire suitable coverage of the study area in a limited time frame, the seafloor-elevation survey was conducted using three techniques: single-beam bathymetry, interferometric swath bathymetry, and a walking kinematic survey of the island shorelines. All three techniques utilized GPS measurements. Implementation of these techniques was executed concurrently yet independently aboard two research vessels: the RV Survey Cat, a 26-foot (ft) shallow-draft Glacier Bay Coastal Runner, and the 50-ft RV G.K. Gilbert. A portable push buggy with a rigid antenna mount served as the platform for the kinematic shoreline survey. Data from each survey technique was post-processed and edited independently with proper inclusion of the differentially processed external navigation files. The x,y,z components from each method were then combined and the two survey years (2008 and 2009) were merged into one dataset. The 2008 bathymetry data were processed at the USGS Center for Coastal and Marine Science in St. Petersburg, Fla., and the 2009 bathymetry data were processed at the USGS Coastal and Marine Science Center located in Woods Hole, Mass.
This report serves as an archive of the processed single beam and interferometric swath bathymetry, outlines the methodology, and reports the results. Data products herein include gridded and interpolated digital depth surfaces, and x,y,z data products for both single beam and interferometric swath bathymetry. Additional files include trackline maps, navigation files, geographic information system (GIS) files, Field Activity Collection System (FACS) logs, and formal Federal Geographic Data Committee (FGDC) metadata. Scanned images of the handwritten FACS logs and digital FACS logs are also provided as PDF files. Refer to the Acronyms page for description of acronyms and abbreviations used in this report or hold the cursor over an acronym for a pop-up explanation.
The USGS St. Petersburg Coastal and Marine Science Center assigns a unique identifier to each cruise or field activity. For example, 08CCT01 indicates that the data were collected in 2008 for the Coastal Change and Transport (CCT) study and the data were collected during the first (01) field activity for that project in that calendar year. Refer to http://walrus.wr.usgs.gov/infobank/programs/html/definition/activity.ht… for a detailed description of the method used to assign the field activity ID.
See the digital FACS equipment log for details about the acquisition equipment used. Raw datasets are stored digitally at the USGS St. Petersburg Coastal and Marine Science Center and processed systematically using Novatel's GrafNav version 7.6, SANDS version 3.7, SEA SWATHplus version 3.06.04.03, CARIS HIPS AND SIPS version 3.6, and ESRI ArcGIS version 9.3.1. For more information on processing refer to the Equipment and Processing page. Chirp seismic data were also collected during these surveys and are archived separately.
|Title||Archive of single beam and swath bathymetry data collected nearshore of the Gulf Islands National Seashore, Mississippi, from West Ship Island, Mississippi, to Dauphin Island, Alabama: Methods and data report for USGS Cruises 08CCT01 and 08CCT02, July 200|
|Authors||Nancy T. DeWitt, James G. Flocks, Elizabeth A. Pendleton, Mark E. Hansen, B.J. Reynolds, Kyle W. Kelso, Dana S. Wiese, Charles R. Worley|
|Publication Subtype||USGS Numbered Series|
|Series Title||Data Series|
|Record Source||USGS Publications Warehouse|