The data sets in this report include digitized aquifer boundaries and maps of hydraulic conductivity, recharge, and ground-water level elevation contours for the Antlers aquifer in southeastern Oklahoma. The Early Cretaceous-age Antlers Sandstone is an important source of water in an area that underlies about 4,400-square miles of all or part of Atoka, Bryan, Carter, Choctaw, Johnston, Love, Marshall, McCurtain, and Pushmataha Counties. The Antlers aquifer consists of sand, clay, conglomerate, and limestone in the outcrop area. The upper part of the Antlers aquifer consists of beds of sand, poorly cemented sandstone, sandy shale, silt, and clay. The Antlers aquifer is unconfined where it outcrops in an area of about 1,800-square miles (Morton, 1992).
The recharge, hydraulic conductivity, and aquifer boundaries data sets include the outcrop area of the Antlers Sandstone in Oklahoma and areas where the Antlers is overlain by alluvial and terrace deposits and a few small thin outcrops of the Goodland Limestone. Most of the lines in the data sets are from the digital data of the surficial geology of the Antlers Sandstone from Cederstrand (1996a, 1996b) except where the Antlers aquifer is overlain by alluvial and terrace deposits near streams and rivers. Morton (1992) interpolated the Antlers aquifer boundaries under the alluvial and terrace deposits where streams cross the aquifer outcrop. Aquifer boundary lines for areas where the aquifer is overlain by alluvial and terrace deposits were digitized and are similar to the aquifer boundaries shown in Morton (1992). A few polygons in this data set represent small and thin outcrops of the Goodland Limestone overlying the Antlers aquifer. The Antlers aquifer in Texas (Morton, 1992) is not included in this data set. The maps from which this data set was derived were scanned or digitized from maps published at a scale of 1:250,000. Hydraulic conductivity and recharge values were used as input to the ground-water model report for the Antlers aquifer by Morton (1992).
The water-level elevation contours were digitized from a mylar map at a scale of 1:250,000 that was used to prepare the final map that was published as plate 1, map A, "Observed potentiometric surface, 1970, Antlers aquifer" at a scale of 1:500,000 in Morton (1992). Morton (1992) used water levels measured in wells in 1970 to construct the map. The water-level elevation contours for the Antlers aquifer in Texas (Morton, 1992) are not included in this data set.
Ground-water flow models are numerical representations that simplify and aggregate natural systems. Models are not unique; different combinations of aquifer characteristics may produce similar results. The hydraulic conductivity and recharge are closely interrelated. As long as these two model inputs are in balance the model has a small mean residual; it represents the natural system numerically. If the hydraulic conductivity is accurately known, the model can be used to accurately determine recharge. Likewise, if the hydraulic conductivity is poorly known, then the recharge will be poorly determined. Therefore, values of hydraulic conductivity and recharge used in the model and presented in this data set are not precise, but are within a reasonable range when compared to independently collected data.
In most aquifers, hydraulic conductivity measurements made in wells or in cores will range over several orders of magnitude, even over short horizontal and vertical distances. Hydraulic conductivity values derived from ground-water flow models represent areal generalizations and do not reflect the large local variance in well or core measurements. Recharge probably varies considerably over the local area, and model recharge is at best an average over an area at least as large as the model grid (and probably much larger than a single cell).
Compilation of the data sets was funded under a cooperative Joint Funding Agreement between the U.S. Geological Survey and the State of Oklahoma, Office of the Secretary of Environment.
|Title||Digital data set that describe aquifer characteristics of the Antlers aquifer in southeastern Oklahoma|
|Authors||Marvin M. Abbott, Donna L. Runkle, Alan Rea|
|Publication Subtype||USGS Numbered Series|
|Series Title||Open-File Report|
|Record Source||USGS Publications Warehouse|