The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) collected borehole geophysical and video logs in 17 open-hole wells in Northampton, Warminster, and Warwick Townships, Bucks County, Pennsylvania during 2017–19 to support detailed groundwater investigations at and near the former Naval Air Warfare Center (NAWC) Warminster, where groundwater contamination with per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) had become a concern since 2014. The area is underlain by the Triassic Stockton Formation, which forms a fractured-sedimentary-rock aquifer used for private, industrial, and public drinking-water supply. The geophysical and video logs were used to characterize the boreholes and identify potential water-bearing fractures for subsequent detailed investigations. Of the 17 wells that were logged, subsequent investigations were conducted by USGS in 15 wells and included hydraulic tests of discrete water-bearing zones using a straddle-packer system in 13 wells and depth-discrete point sampling in 2 wells. These 15 wells ranged in depth from about 210 to 604 feet (ft) below land surface (bls) and included six new 6-inch diameter wells drilled to initial depths of 600 ft bls on the former NAWC Warminster base property in 2018 and nine 8- to 12-inch diameter existing former production or unused test wells. Partial geophysical or video logs also were collected by USGS during 2018 in two other wells that were not included in subsequent detailed investigations.
Most wells had numerous water-bearing fractures or openings throughout the depth of the open boreholes. Most of these water-bearing features appeared to be openings parallel to bedding or high-angle fractures approximately orthogonal to bedding. Casing lengths ranged from about 19 to 93 ft bls. Depth to the ambient water level at the time of logging ranged from about 1.8 ft above land surface in a flowing well to about 55 ft bls. Measured borehole flow was predominantly downward in most of the deepest wells (greater than 400 ft), which were commonly located at the highest land-surface elevations, and contained inflow from fractures at relatively shallow depths and outflow through fractures near or below depths of 500 ft bls. Borehole flow was predominantly upward in most wells less than 400 ft in depth.
|Title||Geophysical and video logs of selected wells at and near the former Naval Air Warfare Center Warminster, Bucks County, Pennsylvania, 2017-19|
|Authors||Lisa A. Senior, J. Alton Anderson, Philip H. Bird|
|Publication Subtype||USGS Numbered Series|
|Series Title||Open-File Report|
|Record Source||USGS Publications Warehouse|
|USGS Organization||Pennsylvania Water Science Center|