Human disturbances of waterfowl can be intentional or unintentional. They may result from overt or directed activities or may be ancillary to activities not initially thought to be of concern to birds. Some of these disturbances are manifested by alertness, fright (obvious or inapparent), flight, swimming, disablement, or death. Therefore, persons responsible for waterfowl management areas should be aware of the problems from human disturbance and should design management and facilities that increase public appreciation of waterfowl.
|Title||Human disturbances of waterfowl: causes, effects, and management|
|Authors||C. E. Korschgen, R.B. Dahlgren|
|Publication Subtype||Federal Government Series|
|Series Title||Fish and Wildlife Leaflet|
|Record Source||USGS Publications Warehouse|
|USGS Organization||Northern Prairie Wildlife Research Center|