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Investigation of U.S. Foreign Reliance on Critical Minerals—U.S. Geological Survey technical input document in response to Executive Order No. 13953 Signed September 30, 2020

December 7, 2020

Over the past few decades (1990–2019), the United States has become reliant on foreign sources to meet domestic demand for a large and growing number of mineral commodities. In combination with recent trends towards progressively concentrated supply of mineral commodities from a limited number of countries, this heightened import reliance may increase the risk to the United States economy and national security. Several factors obscure the true net import reliance of mineral commodities essential to the United States, including indirect trade reliance, embedded trade reliance, and foreign ownership. This report provides a detailed overview of contributions to and trends of these mineral commodity supply risks and provides an outline of the salient factors pertaining to each mineral commodity’s supply chain. It also describes some additional considerations and provides a general framework for evaluating different strategies aimed at reducing net import reliance and supply risk.

Citation Information

Publication Year 2020
Title Investigation of U.S. Foreign Reliance on Critical Minerals—U.S. Geological Survey technical input document in response to Executive Order No. 13953 Signed September 30, 2020
DOI 10.3133/ofr20201127
Authors Nedal T. Nassar, Elisa Alonso, Jaime L. Brainard
Publication Type Report
Publication Subtype USGS Numbered Series
Series Title Open-File Report
Series Number 2020-1127
Index ID ofr20201127
Record Source USGS Publications Warehouse
USGS Organization National Minerals Information Center

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