Nedal T Nassar

I am the chief of the Materials Flow Analysis Section at the National Minerals Information Center, U.S. Geological Survey.

Biography

My research team and I quantify the global stocks and flows of nonfuel mineral commodities at each stage of their life cycle, analyze trends and examine concerns regarding foreign mineral dependencies, develop supply and demand scenarios, and assess the mineral commodity supply risk to the U.S. economy and national security.

I received my Ph.D. from Yale University where I worked on the development and application of a methodology for assessing critical minerals. I have continued that work as a leading member of the U.S. National Science and Technology Council (Executive Office of the President of the United States) Critical Minerals Subcommittee. I also serve as the Chair of the Project Steering Committee for National Minerals Information Center, a member of the Executive Committee for the Council of Senior Science Advisors at U.S. Geological Survey (PECASE member), and on the advisory board of various international research projects.

In 2019, I was awarded the Presidential Early Career Award for Scientists and Engineers (PECASE), the highest honor bestowed by the United States Government to outstanding scientists and engineers who are beginning their independent research careers. My research has been published in several high-profile journals and highlighted in major media outlets. I have also been called upon to testify before the U.S. Senate Committee on Energy and Natural Resources, brief senior U.S. government officials, and invited to give keynote addresses and present my research at significant venues including The National Academies, the European Commission, and the World Bank.

Previously, I worked as a consultant and as a process development engineer in the semiconductors and data storage industries where I was the recipient of three trade secrets. I also hold a bachelor’s degree in chemical engineering from the University of Minnesota, an MBA in sustainable global enterprise from Cornell University, as well as two master’s degrees from Yale University.

 

Education

Ph.D. Industrial Ecology, Yale University

M.Phil. Industrial Ecology, Yale University

M.ESc. Industrial Ecology, Yale University

M.B.A. Business Administration, Cornell University

B.ChE. Chemical Engineering, University of Minnesota

 

Awards

Presidential Early Career Award for Scientists and Engineers (2017 PECASE, awarded in 2019) - "the highest honor bestowed by the United States Government to outstanding scientists and engineers who are beginning their independent research careers and who show exceptional promise for leadership in science and technology."

First Runner-up, Journal of Industrial Ecology, Top paper by junior author (2015)

International Precious Metals Institute Award (2010)

 

Intellectual property

Trade Secret - Statistic Dissipative Coating Process Improvements (Hutchinson Technology, Inc., 2006)

Trade Secret - Laminate Material Processing (Hutchinson Technology, Inc., 2004)

Trade secret - Statistic Dissipative Coating (Hutchinson Technology, Inc., 2003)

 

Appointments

2021-       Executive Committee, Council of Senior Science Advisors (COSSA)/(PECASE member, 2019), U.S. Geological Survey

2016-       Chief, Minerals Flow Analysis Section, National Minerals Information Center, U.S. Geological Survey

2016-       Chair, Project Steering Committee, National Minerals Information Center, U.S. Geological Survey

2015-       Member, Critical Minerals Subcommittee, U.S. National Science & Technology Council, Executive Office of the President

2015-16   Physical scientist, National Minerals Information Center, U.S. Geological Survey

2011-15   PhD candidate, Center for Industrial Ecology, Yale University

2009-11   Research assistant, Center for Industrial Ecology, Yale University

2008-09   Sustainability consultant, Madison Environmental Group, Inc.

2007         Management consultant (MBA internship), Accenture

2004-06   Process development engineer, Hutchinson Technology, Inc.

2003-04   Process engineer, Hutchinson Technology, Inc.

2002         Process engineering co-op, Cypress Semiconductors

 

International research projects

International Round Table on Materials Criticality - Member (2019-2022)

MinFuture - Advisory board (2017-2018)

Phytocat - Member (2013-2015)

Criticality of Metals (Yale University) - Member (2009-2015)

 

Publications

Google scholar profile

35. Nassar, N.T., and Fortier, S.M., 2021, Methodology and technical input for the 2021 review and revision of the U.S. Critical Minerals List: U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 2021–1045, 31 p.

34. Fortier, S.M., Nassar, N.T., Kelley, K.D., Lederer, G.W., Mauk, J.L., Hammarstrom, J.M., Day, W.C., and Seal, R.R., 2021, USGS 2020 Critical Minerals Review: Mining Engineering, v. 73, no. 5, p. 32.

33. Nassar, N.T., Alonso, E., and Brainard, J.L., 2020, Investigation of U.S. Foreign Reliance on Critical Minerals—U.S. Geological Survey Technical Input Document in Response to Executive Order No. 13953 Signed September 30, 2020: U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 2020–1127, 37 p.

32. Nassar, N.T., and Fortier, S.M., 2020, U.S. Mineral Supply Chain Security in the Age of Pandemics and Trade Wars (A. Sela, Ed.): TheScienceBreaker, v. 06, no. 04.

31. Fortier, S.M., Nassar, N.T., Mauk, J.L., Hammarstrom, J.M., Warren, D.C., and Seal, R.R., 2020, USGS critical minerals review: Mining Engineering, v. 72, no. 5, p. 30–45.

30. Nassar, N.T., Brainard, J., Gulley, A., Manley, R., Matos, G., Lederer, G., Bird, L.R., Pineault, D., Alonso, E., Gambogi, J., and Fortier, S.M., 2020, Evaluating the mineral commodity supply risk of the U.S. manufacturing sector: Science Advances, v. 6, no. 8, p. eaay8647.

29. Schnebele E., Jaiswal K., Luco N., Nassar N.T., 2019, Natural hazards and mineral commodity supply: Quantifying risk of earthquake disruption to South American copper supply. Resources Policy. v. 63, p. 101430.

28. Gulley, A.L, Nassar, N.T., Xun, S., 2018, China, the United States, and competition for resources that enable emerging technologies: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, v. 115, no. 16, p. 4111-4115, doi:10.1073/pnas.1717152115.

27. Fortier, S.M., Nassar, N.T., Lederer, G.W., Brainard, Jamie, Gambogi, Joseph, and McCullough, E.A., 2018, Draft critical mineral list—Summary of methodology and background information—U.S. Geological Survey technical input document in response to Secretarial Order No. 3359: U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 2018–1021, 15 p.

26. Brainard, J., Nassar, N.T., Gambogi, J., Baker, M.S., and Jarvis, M.T., 2018, Globally sourced mineral commodities used in U.S. Navy SEAL gear—An illustration of U.S. net import reliance: U.S. Geological Survey General Information Product 183, 2 p.

25. McCullough, E., and Nassar, N.T., 2017, Assessment of critical minerals: updated application of an early-warning screening methodology: Mineral Economics. v. 30, p. 257-272.

24. Nassar, N.T., 2017, Shifts and trends in the global anthropogenic stocks and flows of tantalum: Resources, Conservation and Recycling, v. 125, p. 233–250.

23. Singerling, S.A., and Nassar, N.T., 2017, Minor metals and renewable energy—Diversifying America’s energy sources: U.S. Geological Survey Fact Sheet 2017–3061, 2 p.

22. Jenni, K.E., Goldhaber, M.B., Betancourt, J.L., Baron, J.S., Bristol, R.S., Cantrill, Mary, Exter, P.E., Focazio, M.J., Haines, J.W., Hay, L.E., Hsu, Leslie, Labson, V.F., Lafferty, K.D., Ludwig, K.A., Milly, P.C., Morelli, T.L., Morman, S.A., Nassar, N.T., Newman, T.R., Ostroff, A.C., Read, J.S., Reed, S.C., Shapiro, C.D., Smith, R.A., Sanford, W.E., Sohl, T.L., Stets, E.G., Terando, A.J., Tillitt, D.E., Tischler, M.A., Toccalino, P.L., Wald, D.J., Waldrop, M.P., Wein, Anne, Weltzin, J.F., and Zimmerman, C.E., 2017, Grand challenges for integrated USGS science—A workshop report: U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 2017–1076, 94 p.

21. Dewulf, J., Blengini, G.A., Pennington, D., Nuss, P., and Nassar, N.T., 2016, Criticality on the international scene: Quo vadis? Resources Policy, v. 50, p. 169–176.

20. Nassar, N.T., Wilburn, D.R., and Goonan, T.G., 2016, Byproduct metal requirements for U.S. wind and solar photovoltaic electricity generation up to the year 2040 under various Clean Power Plan scenarios: Applied Energy, v. 183, p. 1209–1226.

19. Ciacci, L., Harper, E.M., Nassar, N.T., Reck, B.K., and Graedel, T.E., 2016, Metal Dissipation and Inefficient Recycling Intensify Climate Forcing: Environmental Science & Technology, v. 50, no. 20, p. 11394–11402.

18. Meinert, L., Robinson, G., and Nassar, N.T., 2016, Mineral Resources–Reserves, peak production and the future: Resources, v. 5, no. 1, p. 14.

17.  Nassar, N.T., Xun, S., Schoeberlein, D., Fortier, S., Fields, F., Bauer, D., Meinert, L., and Carim, A., 2016, Assessment of critical minerals: Screening methodology and initial application: U.S. National Science and Technology Council, Washington, D.C.

16.  Nassar, N.T., 2015, Global stocks and flows, losses, and recoveries of platinum-group elements, PhD dissertation, Yale University, New Haven.

15.  Nassar, N.T., Graedel, T.E., and Harper, E.M., 2015, By-product metals are technologically essential but have problematic supply: Science Advances, v. 1, no. 3, p. e1400180.

14. Graedel, T.E., Harper, E.M., Nassar, N.T., Nuss, P., and Reck, B.K., 2015, Criticality of metals and metalloids: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, v. 112, no. 14, p. 4257–4262.

13. Ciacci, L., Reck, B.K., Nassar, N.T., and Graedel, T.E., 2015, Lost by design: Environmental Science and Technology, v. 49, p. 9443–9451.

12. Nassar, N.T., 2015, Limitations to elemental substitution as exemplified by the platinum-group metals: Green Chemistry, v. 17, p. 2226–2235.

11. Nassar, N.T., Du, X., and Graedel, T.E., 2015, Criticality of the rare earth elements: Journal of Industrial Ecology, v. 19, no. 6, p. 1044–1054.

10. Nuss, P., Harper, E.M., Nassar, N.T., Reck, B.K., and Graedel, T.E., 2014, Criticality of iron and its principal alloying elements: Environmental Science & Technology, v. 48, no. 7, p. 4171–4177. 

9. Hunt, A.J., Anderson, C.W.N., Bruce, N., García, A.M., Graedel, T.E., Hodson, M., Meech, J. a., Nassar, N.T., Parker, H.L., Rylott, E.L., Sotiriou, K., Zhang, Q., and Clark, J.H., 2014, Phytoextraction as a tool for green chemistry: Green Processing and Synthesis, v. 3, no. 1, p. 3–22.

8. Oliver, C.D., Nassar, N.T., Lippke, B.R., and McCarter, J.B., 2014, Carbon, fossil fuel, and biodiversity mitigation with wood and forests: Journal of Sustainable Forestry, v. 33, no. 3, p. 248–275.

7. Graedel, T.E., Harper, E.M., Nassar, N.T., and Reck, B.K., 2015, On the materials basis of modern society: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, v. 112, p. 6295–6300.

6. Graedel, T.E., and Nassar, N.T., 2013, The criticality of metals–A perspective for geologists, in Jenkin, G.R.T., Lusty, P.A.J., McDonald, I., Smith, M.P., Boyce, A.J., and Wilkinson, J.J. eds., Ore Deposits in an Evolving Earth (Special Publication 393): Geological Society, London, UK, p. 291–302.

5. Nassar, N.T., 2013, Anthropospheric losses of platinum group elements, in Hunt, A.J. ed., Element Recovery and Sustainability: Royal Society of Chemistry, Cambridge, UK, p. 185–206.

4. Desia, A., Nassar, N.T., and Chertow, M., 2012, American seams–An exploration of hybrid fast fashion and domestic manufacturing models in relocalised apparel production: Journal of Corporate Citizenship, no. 45, p. 53–78.

3. Nassar, N.T., Barr, R., Browning, M., Diao, Z., Friedlander, E., Harper, E.M., Henly, C., Kavlak, G., Kwatra, S., Jun, C., Warren, S., Yang, M.Y., and Graedel, T.E., 2012, Criticality of the geological copper family: Environmental Science and Technology, v. 46, no. 2, p. 1071–1078.

2. Graedel, T.E., Barr, R., Chandler, C., Chase, T., Choi, J., Christoffersen, L., Friedlander, E., Henly, C., Jun, C., Nassar, N.T., Schechner, D., Warren, S., Yang, M.Y., and Zhu, C., 2012, Methodology of metal criticality determination: Environmental Science and Technology, v. 46, no. 2, p. 1063–1070.

1. Graedel, T., Barr, R., Cordier, D., Enriquez, M., Hagelüken, C., Hammond, N., Kesler, S., Mudd, G., Nassar, N., Peacey, J., Reck, B., Robb, L., Skinner, B., Turnbull, I., and others, 2011, Estimating long-run geological stocks of metals: UNEP International Panel on Sustainable Resource Management, Paris.

 

Selected conference presentations, panels, hearings, and posters

"Characterizing and prioritizing critical mineral supply chain risks and potential abatement strategies" Critical minerals: From discovery to supply chain. Online workshop organized by British Columbia Geological Survey, Geological Survey of Canada, Geoscience Australia, United States Geological Survey, Geological Association of Canada, November 16, 2021 (invited keynote).

"Identifying and prioritizing mineral commodities critical to the U.S. economy and national security." Filling in the gap: The role of multiphysics to understand geological and mineral systems, part 1. Society of Exploration Geophysicists (SEG) Annual Meeting, September 30, 2021 (invited).

"Geospatially resolving mineral commodity supply chains." Collaborative workflow for geospatial knowledge in the logistics and supply chain landscape. Geospatial World, September 9, 2021 (invited)

"Assessing the resliency of mineral commodity supply chains." NSF National Workshop: Resilient Supply of Critical Minerals, Missouri University of Science & Technology, August 3, 2021 (invited).

"Mineral supply chains critical for energy technologies and the U.S. economy." Earth Resources for the Energy Transition, webinar series hosted by the Committee on Earth Resources, The National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine, April 26, 2021 (invited).

"Mineral supply chain risks for the U.S. economy." U.S. Forest Service - Geology and minerals webinar series, April 7, 2021 (invited).

"High demand, uncertain supply: critical minerals in renewable energy and emerging technologies." Center For Energy Policy And Management, Washington And Jefferson College, March 9, 2021 (invited).

"Great power competition for critical mineral commodities that enable modern technology." Seminar for The Eisenhower School, National Defense University, March 4, 2021 (invited).

"Elemental sustainability: analyses and metrics." Circular Economy in the High-Tech World, National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) virtual workshop, January 27, 2021 (invited).

"New methodologies for evaluating critical mineral supply risks." Critical Minerals Mapping Initiative virtual lecture series, Geoscience Australia, Geological Survey of Canada, & U.S. Geological Survey, January 21, 2021 (invited).

"Assessing the mineral commodity supply risk for the U.S. economy and national security." Yale University's School of the Environment, ENV 884a/ENAS 645b: Industrial Ecology guest lecture and panel, November 9, 2020 (invited).

"Critical mineral commodity supply risk for the United States." CMC Conference 2020, October 21, 2020 (invited).

"Great power competition for critical minerals." National War College, Econ. 6950, virtual guest lecture, August 25, 2020 (invited).

"Evaluating mineral commodity supply chains." Mining and Metallurgical Society of America webinar, August 19, 2020 (invited).

U.S. Senate Energy and Natural Resources Committee Hearing on the Impacts of COVID-19 on Mineral Supply Chains, Washington, D.C., June 24, 2020 (invited).

"Managing Critical Mineral Supply Chain Risks" Institute of the Americas and the Colorado School of Mines' Payne Institute for Public Policy - Critical Minerals and the Energy Transitions Webinar Series, May 7, 2020 (invited).

"Evaluating the mineral commodity supply risk of the U.S. manufacturing sector." Society for Mining, Metallurgy & Exploration - D.C. Section, March 11, 2020 (invited).

"Critical mineral assessment methods." Seminar for The Eisenhower School, National Defense University, March 6, 2020.

"Critical mineral supply chains: risks and opportunities." Séminaire Ressources Minérales et Economie Circulaire, BRGM, Orléans, France, November 22, 2019 (invited).

"Assessing the mineral commodity supply risk of the U.S. manufacturing sector." 3rd EU Critical Raw Materials Week, Brussels, Belgium: November 18, 2019 (invited keynote).

"Mineral commodity supply risk of the U.S. manufacturing sector." Joint stockpile meeting. Public Procurement Service, Seoul, Korea: July 30, 2019.

"Assessing the risk of global copper supply disruption from earthquakes." U.S. Geological Survey Risk Community of Practice, Golden, CO: July 18, 2019.

"Evaluating the supply risk of minerals critical to the U.S. manufacturing sector." U.S. Department of State - Bureau of Energy Resources, Washington, D.C.: June 28, 2019 (invited).

"Evaluating the mineral supply risk for U.S. manufacturers." Roundtable session on future metal markets and possible implications in our client countries. The World Bank Group – Energy & Extractives Unit, Washington, D.C.: May 30, 2019 (invited).

"Evaluating mineral supply risk for U.S. manufacturers." U.S. Geological Survey's Mineral Resources Program Science Forum, Golden, CO: May 14, 2019.

"Supply of and demand for mineral commodities of importance to Greenland." Greenland Ministry of Mineral Resources and Labour, Nuuk, Greenland: May 1, 2019 (invited)

Panel participant at "Minerals for Climate Action: How to Supply Clean Minerals for EVs? " The World Bank Group – Energy & Extractives Unit, Washington, D.C.: March 6, 2019 (invited).

"Assessing mineral criticality and associated supply risk mitigation strategies." U.S. Geological Survey Mineral Resource Assessment training, Lakewood, CO: October 23, 2018.

“Evaluating critical minerals and the strategies that can mitigate their supply risk." Missouri University of Science & Technology, Rolla, MO: September 24, 2018 (invited).

“Demand and supply potential for tellurium." Workshop on tellurium and selenium: geological concentration, industrial recovery, and future supplies. Co-hosted by U.S. Geological Survey and UK NERC-funded project (TeaSe: tellurium and selenium cycling and supply). Keystone, CO: September 21, 2018 (invited).

"Assessing critical minerals and associated mitigation strategies." U.S. Department of State, Washington, D.C.: September 10, 2018 (invited).

“Early-warning screening for critical minerals: 2016-present” International Round Table on Materials Criticality, Resources For Future Generations 2018, Vancouver, B.C., Canada: June 16-21, 2018.

“Impact of global trends on metal supply and demand” Technology Disruption in the Mining Sector, The World Bank Group – Energy & Extractives Unit, Washington, D.C.: June 11, 2018 (invited).

“Anticipating demand for critical minerals” Committee on Earth Resources – Critical Minerals and Materials: Opportunities, challenges, and needs for U.S. manufacturing, economy, and security, The National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine, Washington, D.C.: May 9, 2018 (invited).

“Quantifying and characterization in-use stocks of non-fuel mineral commodities” United Nations Economic Commission for Europe (UNECE) Resource Management Week―Symposium on the Availability of raw materials keynote presentation, Geneva, Switzerland: April 25,2018 (invited keynote).

 “Assessing and tracking critical mineral commodities” American Geosciences Institute―Policy & Critical Issues Webinar online, January 26, 2018 (invited).

“Challenges in closing the loop: perspectives on the circularity of non-fuel mineral commodities” 2017 Yale Environmental Sustainability Summit, Yale University, New Haven, CT: November 3-4, 2017 (invited).

“Shifts and trends in the anthropogenic stocks and flows of tantalum” 58th General Assembly of the Tantalum-Niobium International Study Center, Vancouver, Canada: October 15-18, 2017 (invited).

 “Assessing the supply risk of critical minerals.” Congressional Briefing hosted by the American Geophysical Union, Washington, D.C.: October 5, 2017 (invited).

“Metal supply and demand for U.S. solar PV and wind power up to 2040” Roundtable on Science and Technology for Sustainability, The National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine, Washington, D.C.: June 12, 2017 (invited).

“Byproduct metal requirements for U.S. wind and solar photovoltaic electricity generation up to the year 2040 under various Clean Power Plan scenarios” Poster at 6th Trilateral EU-US-Japan Conference on Critical Materials, Brussels, Belgium: November 28, 2016

“Anthropogenic cycles of metals: case studies of the platinum-group elements” Society of Mining, Metallurgy & Exploration, Washington D.C.: February 9, 2016 (invited).

“From critical metals to elemental sustainability: case studies on the global cycles of the platinum-group elements” Guest lecture at National Defense University— Eisenhower School, Washington, D.C. Feb. 3, 2016 (invited).

“Interagency assessment of critical commodities” 5th Trilateral EU-US-Japan Conference on Critical Materials, Tokyo, Japan: October 26, 2016.

“Critical elements in electronic applications” 18th Annual Green Chemistry & Engineering Conference, American Chemical Society, North Bethesda, MD: June 17-19, 2014 (invited).

“Global stocks and flows, losses and recoveries of platinum-group elements” Gordon Research Conference on Industrial Ecology: Transforming the Industrial Metabolism. Lucca (Barga), Italy: June 1-6, 2014 (invited).

 “Defining sustainable materials” Roundtable on Science and Technology for Sustainability, The National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine, Washington, D.C.: July 27, 2012 (invited).

“Catalysts, ornaments, and hard alloys: the criticality of the platinum-group metals” Poster at Gordon Research Conference on Industrial Ecology: The Role of Industrial Ecology in Addressing Sustainability Imperatives, Les Diablerets, Switzerland: June 17–22, 2012.

 “Preserving the periodic table for posterity” Association of Yale Alumni Assembly LXXI, New Haven, CT: November 17, 2010 (invited).

 “Characterizing and forecasting urban household municipal solid waste in China: A case study of Tianjin.” The World Bank Group, Washington, D.C.: May, 2010.

 

Selected Press Coverage and Interviews

Savage, Luiza CH., "How America got outmaneuvered in a critical mining race." POLITICO article and Global Translations podcast, December 12, 2020. 

Savage, Luiza CH., "How China could strangle Biden's agenda." POLITICO article and Global Translations podcast, November 18, 2020.

Widener, Andrea, "Minerals at risk of supply shortages." Chemical & Engineering News, 2020, 98 (8), p 17, February 21, 2020.

Green Car Congress, "New USGS methodology identifies 23 mineral commodities the supply of which poses greatest risk to manufacturing." February 23, 2020.

Stone, Maddie, "The U.S. could run out of metals that are crucial to tech." Medium, February 21, 2020.

Vinoski, Jim, "Is Mass Timber The Path To Sustainable Construction?" Forbers, December 20, 2019. 

Lowenstein, Frank; Donahue, Brian; Foster, David, "Let's fill out cities with taller, wooden buildings." New York Times - Opinion, October 3, 2019. 

Driessen, Paul; Mamula, Ned, "Modern societies require minerals and mining - And America is largely dependent on foreign sources." CNS News, July 26, 2019.

Schlossberg, Tatiana, Inconspicuous Consumption: The Environmental Impact You Don't Know You Have. Grand Central Publishing, 2019. 

Widener, Andrea, "China, U.S. will likely compete for 11 minerals, study says." Chemical & Engineering News, 2018, 96 (15), April 9, 2018.

Stinson, Liz, "Get ready for skyscrapers made of wood (yes, wood)." Wired, May 30, 2017. 

Pierre-Louis, Kendra, "Should we mine the deep ocean?" Popular Science, February 21, 2017. 

Deaton, Jeremy, "Welcome to the Rare Metal Age." Popular Science, September 12, 2016. 

Deaton, Jeremy, "Wood-and-glue skyscrapers are on the rise." Popular Science, April 26, 2016. 

Carim, Altof, "What makes a mineral critical?" Office of Science & Technology Policy, Executive Office of the President, March 18, 2016.

Weeks, Katie, "Using more wood could cut carbon emissions and fossil fuel use." Architect Magazine, April 8, 2014.

Dennehy, Kevin, "Using more wood for construction can slash global reliance on fossil fuels." Yale News, March 31, 2014. 

Hadlington, Simon, "Rare element substitution a tricky proposition." Chemistry World, Royal Society of Chemistry, January 5, 2014. 

Paramaguru, Kharunya, "Rethinking our risky reliance on rare earth metals." TIME, December 20, 2013. 

Bradley, David, "Metallic recipe for disaster." Materials Today, December 17, 2013.

Hartnett, Kevin, "We can't live without manganese!" Boston Globe, December 15, 2013. 

Worstall, Tim "We're Not About To Run Out Of The Metals To Make Our Electronic Gizmos And Smartphones." Forbes, December 7, 2013. 

Rathi, Akshat, "Rare metals in your smartphone have no substitutes." The Conservation, December 6, 2013.

Chirgwin, Richard, "Gadget world's metals irreplaceable, say boffins." The Register, December 4, 2013. 

Dennehy, Kevin, "For metals of the smartphone age, no Plan B." Yale News, December 2, 2013.