This report provides the results of a detailed Level II analysis of scour potential at structure STAMVT01000006 on Vermont Highway 100 crossing the North Branch of the Hoosic River, Stamford, Vermont (figures 1–8). A Level II study is a basic engineering analysis of the site, including a quantitative analysis of stream stability and scour (U.S. Department of Transportation, 1993). Results of a Level I scour investigation also are included in Appendix E of this report. A Level I investigation provides a qualitative geomorphic characterization of the study site. Information on the bridge, gleaned from Vermont Agency of Transportation (VTAOT) files, was compiled prior to conducting Level I and Level II analyses and is found in Appendix D.
The site is in the Green Mountain section of the New England physiographic province in southern Vermont. The 8.61-mi2 drainage area is in a predominantly rural and forested basin. In the vicinity of the study site, the surface cover is grass with forest along the immediate banks throughout the reach.
In the study area, the North Branch of the Hoosic River has an incised, sinuous channel with a slope of approximately 0.02 ft/ft, an average channel top width of 44 ft and an average bank height of 4 ft. The channel bed material ranges from sand to boulder with a median grain size (D50) of 97.4 mm (0.320 ft). The geomorphic assessment at the time of the Level I and Level II site visit on July 31, 1996, indicated that the reach was stable.
The Vermont Highway 100 crossing of the North Branch of the Hoosic River is a 99-ft-long, two-lane bridge consisting of one 97-foot steel-beam span (Vermont Agency of Transportation, written communication, September 28, 1995). The bridge is supported by vertical, concrete abutments with wingwalls. The channel is skewed approximately 60 degrees to the opening and the opening-skew-to-roadway is also 60 degrees.
The scour protection measures at the site included type-1 stone fill (less than 12 inches diameter) along the downstream left bank. Type-2 (less than 36 inches diameter) stone fill was found along the upstream left bank and the downsteam right bank. Additional details describing conditions at the site are included in the Level II Summary and Appendices D and E.
Scour depths and rock rip-rap sizes were computed using the general guidelines described in Hydraulic Engineering Circular 18 (Richardson and others, 1995). Total scour at a highway crossing is comprised of three components: 1) long-term streambed degradation; 2) contraction scour (due to accelerated flow caused by a reduction in flow area at a bridge) and; 3) local scour (caused by accelerated flow around piers and abutments). Total scour is the sum of the three components. Equations are available to compute depths for contraction and local scour and a summary of the results of these computations follows.
Contraction scour for all modelled flows ranged from 0.7 to 2.1 ft. The worst-case contraction scour occurred at the 500-year discharge. Abutment scour ranged from 18.8 to 19.7 ft along the right abutment and from 2.8 to 6.8 ft along the left abutment. The worst-case abutment scour occurred at the 500-year discharge. Additional information on scour depths and depths to armoring are included in the section titled “Scour Results”. Scoured-streambed elevations, based on the calculated scour depths, are presented in tables 1 and 2. A cross-section of the scour computed at the bridge is presented in figure 8. Scour depths were calculated assuming an infinite depth of erosive material and a homogeneous particle-size distribution.
It is generally accepted that the Froehlich equation (abutment scour) gives “excessively conservative estimates of scour depths” (Richardson and others, 1995, p. 47). Usually, computed scour depths are evaluated in combination with other information including (but not limited to) historical performance during flood events, the geomorphic stability assessment, existing scour protection measures, and the results of the hydraulic analyses. Therefore, scour depths adopted by VTAOT may differ from the computed values documented herein.
|Title||Level II scour analysis for Bridge 6 (STAMVT01000006) on State Route 100, crossing the North Branch of the Hoosic River, Stamford, Vermont|
|Authors||Robert H. Flynn|
|Publication Subtype||USGS Numbered Series|
|Series Title||Open-File Report|
|Record Source||USGS Publications Warehouse|