Natural Attenuation in Source Zone and Groundwater Plume - Bemidji Crude Oil Spill
A long-term study of a 40-year-old crude oil spill provides insights about petroleum hydrocarbon natural attenuation processes and rates. In the source zone, fermentation coupled to methanogenesis is the dominant natural source zone depletion (NSZD) process, and most of the carbon mass exits the surface as CO2 efflux. Monitored natural attenuation (MNA) of the groundwater plume shows that benzene degradation is coupled to iron reduction and that the benzene plume is stable. A plume of hydrocarbon oxidation products measured as nonvolatile dissolved organic carbon (NVDOC) expanded ~20 m in 20 years. Most of the NVDOC is biodegraded by 200 m from the source, but optical data suggest there are components that persists for 300 m. Biological effects screening indicates decreasing biological effects with distance from the source.
|Natural Attenuation in Source Zone and Groundwater Plume - Bemidji Crude Oil Spill
|Barbara A. Bekins
|USGS Publications Warehouse
|WMA - Earth System Processes Division