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Petrology of the 2016–2017 eruption of Bogoslof Island

November 28, 2019

The 2016–2017 eruption of Bogoslof primarily produced crystal-rich amphibole basalts. The dominant juvenile tephra were highly microlitic with diktytaxitic vesicles, and amphiboles had large reaction rims. Both observations support a magma history of slow ascent and/or shallow stalling prior to eruption. Plagioclase-amphibole-clinopyroxene mineralogy are also suggestive of shallow magma crystallization. Lavas were emplaced as shallow submarine lava domes and cryptodomes that produced 70 relatively short-lived and water-rich explosions over the course of the 9-month long eruption. The explosions ejected older trachyandesite lavas that were likely uplifted by cryptodome emplacement that began in December 2016 and continued for many months. Trachyte pumice, similar in composition to a 1796 lava dome, was entrained in basalts by the end of the eruption. The pumice appears to be a largely crystalline magma that was rejuvenated, entrained in the basalt, and heated to ~1000 ℃. The composition of trachytes require differentiation through stronger amphibole control than the apparent shallow crustal evolution implied for the basalt. This suggests that they are magmas derived from a mid-crustal zone of amphibole crystallization. Nearby arc-front volcanoes that notably lack amphibole have strikingly similar compositional trends. Trace element signatures of the Bogoslof basalts, however, suggest derivation from a mantle source with residual garnet and lower-degree melting than basalts from nearby arc-front volcanoes. The diversity of magmas erupted at Bogoslof thus provides an opportunity not only to probe rare backarc compositions from the Aleutian arc, but also to examine the apparent role of amphibole in generating evolved compositions more broadly in arc environments.

Publication Year 2019
Title Petrology of the 2016–2017 eruption of Bogoslof Island
DOI 10.1007/s00445-019-1333-6
Authors Matthew W. Loewen, Pavel Izbekof, Justin Moshrefzadeh, Michelle L. Coombs, Jessica Larsen, Nathan Graham, Michelle Harbin, Christopher F. Waythomas, Kristi L. Wallace
Publication Type Article
Publication Subtype Journal Article
Series Title Bulletin of Volcanology
Index ID 70215099
Record Source USGS Publications Warehouse
USGS Organization Volcano Science Center