We examined the effectiveness of chemically enhanced treatment wetlands (CETWs), wetlands that received water treated with coagulants, to remove dissolved organic carbon (DOC), disinfection byproduct precursors (DBPPs), nutrients and metals from agricultural drain water. Wetlands consisted of controls with no coagulant addition, ferric sulfate dosed and polyaluminum chloride dosed treatments. CETWs were more effective in removal of DOC, DBPPs, phosphate, dissolved organic nitrogen and metals than control wetlands. Coagulation treated wetlands removed 245 – 349 g/m2yr DOC, whereas control wetlands produced 51 g/m2yr. Wetland passage released DOC in the controls and treatments; this release was directly correlated to temperature and suggested thermally dependent mechanism(s) were partly responsible. A first-order plug flow reactor kinetic model that considered hydraulic retention time (HRT), temperature and concentration was tested for wetland DOC processing. Models indicate that operating CETWs at high coagulant dosing and low temperature can result in lowest DOC release with additional release suppression. Operating at the lowest HRT to meet discharge targets help overcome wetland processes that increase DOC release and provide the smallest footprint needed for treatment.
|Title||Sequestration and transformation in chemically enhanced treatment wetlands: DOC, DBPPs and Nutrients|
|Authors||Philip A. M. Bachand, Sandra M. Bachand, Tamara E. C. Kraus, Dylan Stern, Yan Ling Liang, William R. Horwath|
|Publication Subtype||Journal Article|
|Series Title||Journal of Environmental Engineering|
|Record Source||USGS Publications Warehouse|
|USGS Organization||California Water Science Center|