Streams and their surrounding catchments exchange water and solutes on a range of physical scales. Exchange with the stream may extend into the interstitial areas of the streambed, the hyporheic zone, the riparian area, or the catchment's groundwater flow system. Even at the smaller scales, the exchanges significantly influence solute transport, nutrient cycling, and the aquatic ecosystem. Over the recent decades, considerable attention has been given to the solute transport aspects of stream–groundwater interactions. Stream–groundwater interactions are now being recognized as practical matters to be considered in environmental issues, such as stream restoration and fish habitat. In this chapter, the emphasis is on introducing (1) the breadth of hydrologic interactions between streams and groundwater and (2) the importance of interpreting these interactions to understanding stream chemistry and ecology.