Skip to main content
U.S. flag

An official website of the United States government

Tracking nonpoint source nitrogen pollution in human-impacted watersheds

January 1, 2011

Nonpoint source nitrogen (N) pollution is a leading contributor to U.S. water quality impairments. We combined watershed N mass balances and stable isotopes to investigate fate and transport of nonpoint N in forest, agricultural, and urbanized watersheds at the Baltimore Long-Term Ecological Research site. Annual N retention was 55%, 68%, and 82% for agricultural, suburban, and forest watersheds, respectively. Analysis of δ15N-NO3, and δ18O-NO3 indicated wastewater was an important nitrate source in urbanized streams during baseflow. Negative correlations between δ15N-NO3 and δ18O-NO3 in urban watersheds indicated mixing between atmospheric deposition and wastewater, and N source contributions changed with storm magnitude (atmospheric sources contributed ∼50% at peak storm N loads). Positive correlations between δ15N-NO3 and δ18O-NO3 in watersheds suggested denitrification was removing septic system and agriculturally derived N, but N from belowground leaking sewers was less susceptible to denitrification. N transformations were also observed in a storm drain (no natural drainage network) potentially due to organic carbon inputs. Overall, nonpoint sources such as atmospheric deposition, wastewater, and fertilizer showed different susceptibility to watershed N export. There were large changes in nitrate sources as a function of runoff, and anticipating source changes in response to climate and storms will be critical for managing nonpoint N pollution.

Publication Year 2011
Title Tracking nonpoint source nitrogen pollution in human-impacted watersheds
DOI 10.1021/es200779e
Authors Sujay S. Kaushal, Peter M Groffman, Lawrence Band, Emily M. Elliott, Catherine A. Shields, Carol Kendall
Publication Type Article
Publication Subtype Journal Article
Series Title Environmental Science & Technology
Index ID 70034282
Record Source USGS Publications Warehouse
USGS Organization Toxic Substances Hydrology Program