Regional groundwater recharge commonly is estimated using a threshold-type water-budget approach in which groundwater recharge is assumed to occur when water in the plant-root zone exceeds the soil’s moisture storage capacity. A water budget of the plant-soil system accounts for water inputs (rainfall, fog interception, irrigation, septic-system leachate, and other inputs), water outputs (runoff, evaporation, transpiration, and recharge), and changes in stored water during a specified time interval. Water budgets can be computed on any desired interval, including annual, monthly, daily, and subdaily intervals. In general, uncertainty in recharge estimates is expected to be lower using daily or subdaily intervals relative to monthly and annual intervals. Average recharge rates computed over a period of a year or multiple years are commonly determined from water budgets computed using a daily computation interval capable of capturing rainfall and land-cover changes during the period.
This report documents the Water-budget Accounting for Tropical Regions Model, or WATRMod, code that can be used to estimate spatially variable, daily water-budget components in tropical-island and other appropriate settings. The purpose of this report is to provide descriptions of WATRMod’s (1) approach to computing a daily water budget, (2) represented processes, (3) limitations, and (4) execution procedure, input requirements, output files, and example files. The model computes a daily water budget for each hydrologically independent subarea within the overall study area. A subarea is defined by its climatic, soil, land-cover, and human-related (for example, adding irrigation or other water) characteristics. The water-budget model can represent processes including rainfall, fog interception, irrigation, septic-system leachate, direct recharge that bypasses the plant-soil system, runoff, canopy evaporation in forested areas, evapotranspiration, and groundwater recharge. The water-budget model can represent either one of the following different accounting orders: (1) accounting for loss of water by evapotranspiration before accounting for recharge, and (2) accounting for recharge before accounting for evapotranspiration. WATRMod’s limitations include: (1) uncharacterized, subdaily transient changes in water inputs and outputs from the plant-soil system, (2) unrepresented precipitation in the form of snow and sublimation, and (3) routing runoff from one subarea to an adjacent subarea that is not directly represented.
|Title||Water-budget accounting for tropical regions model (WATRMod) documentation|
|Authors||Delwyn S. Oki|
|Publication Subtype||USGS Numbered Series|
|Series Title||Open-File Report|
|Record Source||USGS Publications Warehouse|
|USGS Organization||Pacific Islands Water Science Center|