Science Explorer

Exploring: Liquefaction

Loma Prieta Liquefaction

https://www.usgs.gov/media/images/loma-prieta-liquefaction (HTML Document 42.88 KB)

() Credits: Source: Photographer Topics liquefaction ...

San Francisco Bay Region Geology and Geologic Hazards - Introduction - Liquefaction

Modified 2005-11-17
https://geomaps.wr.usgs.gov/sfgeo/liquefaction/index.html (HTML Document 7.34 KB)

  Introduction - Liquefaction Learn how and where liquefaction may affect the San Francisco Bay region, where it has occurred in the past ... , the kinds of damage that it can cause, and what can be done about it. See liquefaction maps: ...

Liquefaction in Deposits of River

https://www.usgs.gov/media/images/liquefaction-deposits-river (HTML Document 43.74 KB)

Liquefaction in recent deposits of San Lorenzo River caused cracking and differential settling of river levee southeast of Riverside Avenue Bridge ... . Bridge piers and the north abutment area were also damaged by liquefaction. (Credit: J.C. Tinsley, U.S. Geological Survey. Public domain.) Location Taken: Santa Cruz, CA, US Credits: Source: Photographer ...

Liquefaction in Subsurface Layer of Sand

https://www.usgs.gov/media/images/liquefaction-subsurface-layer-sand (HTML Document 43.88 KB)

Liquefaction in Subsurface Layer of Sand Ground shaking triggered liquefaction in a subsurface layer of sand, producing differential lateral and ... failure, termed "lateral spreading," is a principal cause of liquefaction-related earthquake damage. (Credit: S.D. Ellen, U.S. Geological Survey. Public domain.) Credits: Source: Photographer ...

Liquefaction in Deposits of River

https://www.usgs.gov/media/images/liquefaction-deposits-river-0 (HTML Document 43.76 KB)

Liquefaction in Deposits of River Liquefaction in recent deposits of the Pajaro River formed these sand volcanoes along extensional fissures in a ...

Recognizing and dating prehistoric liquefaction features: Lessons learned in the New Madrid seismic zone, central United States

Modified 2012-03-12
https://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70018696 (HTML Document 18.58 KB)

Recognizing and dating prehistoric liquefaction features: Lessons learned in the New Madrid seismic zone, central United States Journal of ... : RIS Abstract The New Madrid seismic zone (NMSZ), which experienced severe liquefaction during the great New Madrid, Missouri, earthquakes of 1811 ... and 1812 as well as during several prehistoric earthquakes, is a superb laboratory for the study of world-class, arthquake-induced liquefaction features ... liquefaction events that is difficult to interpret. Lessons learned studying liquefaction features in the NMSZ may help to unravel the paleoseismic record in ...

Liquefaction at Oceano, California, during the 2003 San Simeon earthquake

Modified 2012-03-12
https://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70028004 (HTML Document 19.71 KB)

Liquefaction at Oceano, California, during the 2003 San Simeon earthquake Bulletin of the Seismological Society of America By: T.L. Holzer, T.E. Noce ... liquefaction-induced lateral spreading at Oceano at an unexpectedly large distance from the seismogenic rupture. We conclude that the liquefaction was ... deposits. Liquefaction occurred in sandy artificial fill and undisturbed eolian sand and fluvial deposits. The largest and most damaging lateral spread was ... caused by liquefaction of artificial fill; the head of this lateral spread coincided with the boundary between the artificial fill and undisturbed ...

Liquefaction caused by the 2009 Olancha, California (USA), M5.2 earthquake

Modified 2012-12-18
https://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70037542 (HTML Document 23.37 KB)

Liquefaction caused by the 2009 Olancha, California (USA), M5.2 earthquake Engineering Geology By: T.L. Holzer, A.S. Jayko, E. Hauksson, J.P.B ... earthquake caused extensive liquefaction as well as permanent horizontal ground deformation within a 1.2 km2area earthquake in Owens Valley in eastern ... California (USA). Such liquefaction is rarely observed during earthquakes of M ≤ 5.2. We conclude that subsurface conditions, not unusual ground motion ... , were the primary factors contributing to the liquefaction. The liquefaction occurred in very liquefiable sands at shallow depth (< 2 m) in an area ...

Lecture experiments in general chemistry VI. The liquefaction and fractionation of air VII. The liquefaction and fractionation of natural gas

Modified 2012-03-12
https://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70011064 (HTML Document 14.88 KB)

Lecture experiments in general chemistry VI. The liquefaction and fractionation of air VII. The liquefaction and fractionation of natural gas Journal ... Lecture experiments in general chemistry VI. The liquefaction and fractionation of air VII. The liquefaction and fractionation of natural gas Series title: ...

Darcian seepage, Coulomb failure and liquefaction in soil-mantled slopes, [abs.]

Modified 2016-11-01
https://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70178061 (HTML Document 15.85 KB)

Darcian seepage, Coulomb failure and liquefaction in soil-mantled slopes, [abs.] EOS, Transactions of the American Geophysical Union By: Darcian ... seepage, Coulomb failure and liquefaction in soil-mantled slopes, [abs.] Series title: DOI: 10.1029/EO066i046p00813 Volume: 66 Issue: 46 ...

San Francisco Bay Region Geology and Geologic Hazards - Liquefaction Maps of the San Francisco Bay Area

Modified 2005-11-17
https://geomaps.wr.usgs.gov/sfgeo/liquefaction/maps.html (HTML Document 10.10 KB)

  A cooperative project with the California Geological Survey Liquefaction Maps of the San Francisco Bay Area Maps of liquefaction hazard are used to ... show how the hazard differs from place to place, the likelihood of liquefaction in different earthquake scenarios, and to define hazard zones ... estimates and regulatory tools. USGS scientists have developed liquefaction hazard maps of the Oakland, Berkeley and Alameda areas ... surface manifestations of liquefaction (such as sand boils and ground cracking).     ...

Maps showing geology and liquefaction potential of Quaternary deposits in Santa Cruz County, California

Modified 2012-02-10
https://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/mf648 (HTML Document 17.13 KB)

Maps showing geology and liquefaction potential of Quaternary deposits in Santa Cruz County, California Miscellaneous Field Studies Map 648 By: Title ... : Maps showing geology and liquefaction potential of Quaternary deposits in Santa Cruz County, California Series title: Scale: 0 ...

Liquefaction in Subsurface Layer of Sand

https://www.usgs.gov/atom/2459 (HTML Document 43.88 KB)

Liquefaction in Subsurface Layer of Sand Ground shaking triggered liquefaction in a subsurface layer of sand, producing differential lateral and ... failure, termed "lateral spreading," is a principal cause of liquefaction-related earthquake damage. (Credit: S.D. Ellen, U.S. Geological Survey. Public domain.) Credits: Source: Photographer ...

Liquefaction in Deposits of River

https://www.usgs.gov/atom/2454 (HTML Document 43.74 KB)

Liquefaction in recent deposits of San Lorenzo River caused cracking and differential settling of river levee southeast of Riverside Avenue Bridge ... . Bridge piers and the north abutment area were also damaged by liquefaction. (Credit: J.C. Tinsley, U.S. Geological Survey. Public domain.) Location Taken: Santa Cruz, CA, US Credits: Source: Photographer ...

Liquefaction in Deposits of River

https://www.usgs.gov/atom/2456 (HTML Document 43.76 KB)

Liquefaction in Deposits of River Liquefaction in recent deposits of the Pajaro River formed these sand volcanoes along extensional fissures in a ...

San Francisco Bay Region Geology and Geologic Hazards - Laws and Guidelines

Modified 2005-11-17
https://geomaps.wr.usgs.gov/sfgeo/liquefaction/laws.html (HTML Document 8.42 KB)

Act , which requires that sites within "Zones of Required Investigation" be investigated for liquefaction and/or landslide hazard before structures ... Seismic Hazard Zones maps , which define zones of required investigation for liquefaction and earthquake-generated landslides.  CGS ... provides information on the regulations and guidelines relating to liquefaction .                 ...

San Francisco Bay Region Geology and Geologic Hazards - Liquefaction Downloads Related to the San Francisco Bay Area

Modified 2005-11-17
https://geomaps.wr.usgs.gov/sfgeo/liquefaction/downloads.html (HTML Document 9.12 KB)

  Liquefaction Downloads Related to the San Francisco Bay Area Maps and information about liquefaction in the San Francisco Bay region are ... detail) of both liquefaction susceptibility and the underlying Quaternary deposits, as well as the higher-resolution digital spatial ... data from which they were prepared. Liquefaction susceptibility is delineated in five units from Very High to Very Low hazard.   ...

San Francisco Bay Region Geology and Geologic Hazards - Earthquakes That Have Caused Liquefaction in the San Francisco Bay Area

Modified 2005-11-17
https://geomaps.wr.usgs.gov/sfgeo/liquefaction/eq_caused.html (HTML Document 19.63 KB)

  Introduction > Earthquakes That Have Caused Liquefaction in the San Francisco Bay Area A cooperative project with the California ... Geological Survey Earthquakes That Have Caused Liquefaction in the San Francisco Bay Area Although it may seem that there have not been many recent ... earthquakes in the Bay region, at least 21 have occurred in the past 200+ years that caused liquefaction. Each earthquake has affected a ...

Scenario liquefaction hazard maps of Santa Clara Valley, Northern California

Modified 2012-03-12
https://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70032461 (HTML Document 19.14 KB)

Scenario liquefaction hazard maps of Santa Clara Valley, Northern California Bulletin of the Seismological Society of America By: Abstract Maps ... showing the probability of surface manifestations of liquefaction in the northern Santa Clara Valley were prepared with liquefaction probability curves ... . These curves were based on complementary cumulative frequency distributions of the liquefaction potential index (LPI) for surficial geologic units in ... Calaveras fault. Ground motions were estimated with the Boore and Atkinson (2008) attenuation relation. Liquefaction is predicted for all three ...

San Francisco Bay Region Geology and Geologic Hazards - About This Section - Liquefaction

Modified 2005-11-17
https://geomaps.wr.usgs.gov/sfgeo/liquefaction/about.html (HTML Document 10.30 KB)

  About This Section - Liquefaction The Purposes of this liquefaction section include: to present an online liquefaction susceptibility map ... ; to describe the different kinds of liquefaction hazard maps available for the San Francisco Bay region; to provide a description of ... liquefaction, including how it occurs and its consequences; to direct interested parties to information about regulations and ways to ... . Construction of the Liquefaction Section of This Web Site: The liquefaction section was written by Keith L. Knudsen (Senior Engineering ...