Conduit Flow Process (CFP): A Program to Simulate Turbulent or Laminar Groundwater Flow Conditions

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Overview of CFP

The conduit flow process for MODFLOW-2005 (CFP) has the ability to simulate turbulent or laminar groundwater flow conditions by:

  1. coupling the traditional groundwater flow equation with formulations for a 1-dimensional discrete network of cylindrical pipes (Mode 1, CFPM1),
  2. inserting a high-conductivity flow layer that can switch between laminar and turbulent flow (Mode 2, CFPM2), or
  3. simultaneously coupling a discrete pipe network while inserting a high-conductivity flow layer that can switch between laminar and turbulent flow (Mode 3, CFPM3).

Conduit flow pipes (CFPM1) may represent:

  • large dissolution features, such as submerged caves in carbonate aquifers or large voids from dissolution of burrowed carbonate rock;
  • voids in fractured rock;
  • lava tubes in basaltic aquifers; and
  • submerged abandoned mines.

Pipes can be fully or partially saturated under laminar or turbulent flow conditions, but should be generally horizontal and full if vertical.

Preferential flow layers (CFPM2) may represent:

  • a porous media where turbulent flow is suspected to occur under the observed hydraulic gradients;
  • a single secondary porosity subsurface feature, such as a well-defined laterally extensive underground cave;
  • or a horizontal preferential flow layer consisting of many interconnected voids.

In this second case, the input data are effective parameters, such as a very high hydraulic conductivity, representing multiple features.

The Conduit Flow Process for MODFLOW-2005 was developed with the support of the USGS Groundwater Resources Program.

 

Download Current Version of CFP

The current release is CFP v.1.8, released February 23, 2011.  The zip file includes a release history, installation instructions, source code, examples, and documentation.

 

Documentation for CFP

Shoemaker, W.B., Kuniansky, E.L., Birk, S., Bauer, S., and Swain, E.D., 2007, Documentation of a Conduit Flow Process (CFP) for MODFLOW-2005: U.S. Geological Survey Techniques and Methods, Book 6, Chapter A24, 50 p.

 

Published Reports and Articles for CFP

Kuniansky, E.L., 2014, Taking the mystery out of mathematical model applications to karst aquifers -- A Primer, in E. L. Kuniansky and L.E. Spangler, editors, U.S. Geological Survey Karst Interest Group Proceedings, Carlsbad, New Mexico, April 29 - May 2, 2014, pp. 69-81. http://dx.doi.org/10.3133/sir20145035.

Gallegos, J.J., Hu, B.X., and Davis, Hal, 2013, Simulating flow in karst aquifers at laboratory and sub-regional scales using MODFLOW-CFP: Hydrogeology Journal, v. 21, p. 1749-1760.

Saller, S.P., Ronayne, M.J. and Long, A.J., 2013, Comparison of a karst groundwater model with and without discrete conduit flow: Hydrogeology Journal, v. 21, no. , p. 1555-1566.

Kuniansky, E.L., Gallegos, J.J., and Davis, J.H., 2011, Comparison of Three Model Approaches for Spring Simulation, Woodville Karst Plain, Florida, in Kuniansky, E.L., ed., U.S. Geological Survey Karst Interest Group Proceedings, Fayetteville, Arkansas, April 26-29, 2011: U.S. Geological Survey Scientific Investigations Report 2011-5031, p. 169-170.

Reimann, T., Rehrl, C., Shoemaker, W.B., Geyer, T. and Birk, S., 2011, The significance of turbulent flow representation in single-continuum models, Water Resour. Res., 47, W09503, doi:10.1029/2010WR010133.

Reimann, T., Geyer, T., Shoemaker, W.B., Liedl, R. and Sauter, M., 2011, Effects of dynamically variable saturation and matrix-conduit coupling of flow in karst aquifers, Water Resources Research, v. 47, W11503, doi:10.1029/2011WR010446.

Reimann T. , Birk, S., Rehr, C., and Shoemaker, W. B., 2011, Modifications to the Conduit Flow Process Mode 2 for MODFLOW-2005: Ground Water, doi: 10.1111/j.1745-6584.2011.00805.x

Hill, M. E., Stewart, M. T. and Martin, A., 2010, Evaluation of the MODFLOW-2005 Conduit Flow Process: Ground Water, 48: 549–559. doi: 10.1111/j.1745-6584.2009.00673.x

Ashok K.C. and Sophocleous, M.A., 2009, Recent MODFLOW developments for groundwater modeling: Kansas Geological Survey Open-file Report 2009-4, 139 p. http://www.kgs.ku.edu/Hydro/Publications/2009/OFR09_4/index.html

Kuniansky, E.L. and Shoemaker, W.B., 2009, Conduit Flow Process (CFP) for MODFLOW-2005: in Proceedings 15th International Congress of Speleology, Kerrvile, Texas, USA, July 19-26, 2009; William B. White, ed.: Greyhound Press, Huntsville, Alabama: pp. 1568-1574.

Reimann, T. and Hill, M. E., 2009, MODFLOW-CFP: A New Conduit Flow Process for MODFLOW-2005: Ground Water, v. 47, p. 321-325. doi: 10.1111/j.1745-6584.2009.00561.x

Kuniansky, E.L., Halford, K.J., and Shoemaker, W.B., 2008, Permeater data verify new turbulence process for MODFLOW: Ground Water v. 46, no. 5, p. 768-771.

Shoemaker, W. B., K. J. Cunningham, E. L. Kuniansky, and J. Dixon, 2008, Effects of turbulence on hydraulic heads and parameter sensitivities in preferential groundwater flow layers: Water Resour. Res., 44, W03501, doi:10.1029/2007WR006601.

Hill, M.E., Martin, Angel, Stewart, M.T., 2008, Performance Evaluation of the Modflow-2005 Conduit Flow Process Applied to a Karst Aquifer Underlying West-Central Florida, inE. L. Kuniansky, editor, U.S. Geological Survey Karst Interest Group Proceedings, Bowling Green, Kentucky, May 27-29, 2008: U.S. Geological Survey Scientific Investigations Report 2008-5023, p.93-98. http://pubs.usgs.gov/sir/2008/5023/37hill.htm

Shoemaker, W.B. and Kuniansky, E.L., 2008, Effects of Turbulence on Hydraulic Heads and Parameter Sensitivities in Preferential Ground-Water Flow Layers, in E. L. Kuniansky, editor, U.S. Geological Survey Karst Interest Group Proceedings, Bowling Green, Kentucky, May 27-29, 2008: U.S. Geological Survey Scientific Investigations Report 2008-5023, p. 89-90. http://pubs.usgs.gov/sir/2008/5023/34shoemaker.htm

Kuniansky, E.L., Halford, K.J., and Shoemaker, W.B., 2008, Simulation of Turbulent Ground-Water Flow with MODFLOW-2005-Overview, in E. L. Kuniansky, editor, U.S. Geological Survey Karst Interest Group Proceedings, Bowling Green, Kentucky, May 27-29, 2008: U.S. Geological Survey Scientific Investigations Report 2008-5023, p. 87-88. http://pubs.usgs.gov/sir/2008/5023/33kuniansky.htm

Shoemaker, W.B., Kuniansky, E.L., Birk, Steffen, Bauer, Sebastian, and Swain, E.D., 2008, Documentation of a Conduit Flow Process (CFP) for MODFLOW-2005: U.S. Geological Survey Techniques and Methods 6-A24, 50 p. http://pubs.usgs.gov/tm/tm6a24/

Shoemaker, W.B. and Kuniansky, E.L., 2007, Simulating Laminar and Turbulent Groundwater Flow in Fractured or Carbonate Aquifers: Geological Society of America abstracthttp://gsa.confex.com/gsa/2007AM/finalprogram/abstract_124784.htm

 

Programs Related to CFP 

 

Find MODFLOW-Related Software

Visit the MODFLOW and Related Programs page for a list of MODFLOW-related software.

 

Software License and Purchase Information

This software is a product of the U.S. Geological Survey, which is part of the U.S. Government.

Cost

This software is freely distributed. There is no fee to download and (or) use this software.

License

Users do not need a license or permission from the USGS to use this software. Users can download and install as many copies of the software as they need.

Public Domain

As a work of the United States Government, this USGS product is in the public domain within the United States. You can copy, modify, distribute, and perform the work, even for commercial purposes, all without asking permission. Additionally, USGS waives copyright and related rights in the work worldwide through CC0 1.0 Universal Public Domain Dedication (https://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/zero/1.0/ ).

 

SOFTWARE USER RIGHTS NOTICE

This software has been approved for release by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS). Although the software has been subjected to rigorous review, the USGS reserves the right to update the software as needed pursuant to further analysis and review. No warranty, expressed or implied, is made by the USGS or the U.S. Government as to the functionality of the software and related material nor shall the fact of release constitute any such warranty. Furthermore, the software is released on condition that neither the USGS nor the U.S. Government shall be held liable for any damages resulting from its authorized or unauthorized use. Also refer to the USGS Water Resources Software User Rights Notice for complete use, copyright, and distribution information.

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