Christina Neal

Biography

I have been working for the USGS on various aspects of volcanology, eruption response, and hazard mitigation since 1983. My introduction to volcanoes started in college looking at Viking Orbiter images of Olympus Mons on Mars. My first Earthly volcano was Mount St. Helens where I prowled the pumice plain in 1982. I learned about lava and volcano monitoring at the Hawaiian Volcano Observatory in the early days of the Pu`u`O`o eruption and spent several years mapping the summit and southwest rift of Kilauea Volcano. In 1985, I enjoyed a month at sea on an ALVIN expedition to the active propagating rift system near the Galapagos at 95.5W. I moved to the Alaska Volcano Observatory in 1990 where I led and participated in many eruption response studies at Redoubt, Spurr, Augustine, Okmok, and many smaller events in the Aleutian arc. My science focused on eruptive histories, young pyroclastic deposits and processes, and hazard assessment. Volcanoes where I  spent considerable field time include: Spurr, Redoubt, Ukinrek, Aniakchak, Black Peak, Okmok, and Little Sitkin. I've developed strong interests and experience in managing volcano hazard information, warning systems, interagency coordination, and volcanic ash and aviation hazards.  I led AVO's collaboration with with volcanology colleagues in Kamchatka and Sakhalin to improve and expand Russian  eruption warning systems. I served for two years as Geoscience Advisor to USAID's Office of U.S. Foreign Disaster Assistance where I developed and facilitated U.S. assistance in disaster mitigation programs abroad. From 2009-2010, I completed two details to the USGS Western Regional Office as Chief of Staff and Deputy Regional Director. In 2011-2012, I represented the Volcano Hazards Program on the USGS Hazards Mission Strategic Science Planning effort.  In March 2015, I began my current assignment as Scientist in Charge at the Hawaiian Volcano Observatory.

 

 

 

 

 

 

Publications

Holmes, Robert R., Jr.; Jones, Lucile M.; Eidenshink, Jeffery C.; Godt, Jonathan W.; Kirby, Stephen H.; Love, Jeffrey J.; Neal, Christina A.; Plant, Nathaniel G.; Plunkett, Michael L.; Weaver, Craig S.; Wein, Anne; Perry, Suzanne C., 2012. Natural hazards science strategy. U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 2012-1088, viii, 54 p.; Appendices. [Link]

Werner, Cynthia, Kelly, P., Doukas, M., Lopez, T., Pfeffer, M., McGimsey, R., and Neal, C. (April 2012), Degassing of CO2, SO2, and H2S associated with the 2009 eruption of Redoubt Volcano, Alaska Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research, doi:10.1016/j.jvolgeores.2012.04.012.

Neal, Christina A.; McGimsey, Robert G.; Dixon, James P.; Cameron, Cheryl E.; Nuzhdaev, Anton A.; Chibisova, Marina, 2011. 2008 Volcanic activity in Alaska, Kamchatka, and the Kurile Islands: Summary of events and response of the Alaska Volcano Observatory. U.S. Geological Survey Scientific Investigations Report 2010-5243, viii, 87 p.; Appendices. [Link]

Robert S. Nicholson, James E. Gardner, Christina A. Neal, 2011, Variations in eruption style during the 1931 A.D. eruption of Aniakchak volcano, Alaska: Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research, Volume 207, Issues 3-4, 15 October 2011, Pages 69-82.

Alexander Rybin, Marina Chibisova, Peter Webley, Torge Steensen, Pavel Izbekov, Christina Neal, Vince Realmuto,, 2011, Satellite and ground observations of the June 2009 eruption of Sarychev Peak Volcano, Matua Island, Central Kuriles: Bulletin of Volcanology, v. 73, p. 1377-1392.

Cynthia Werner, William C. Evans, Peter J. Kelly, Robert McGimsey, Melissa Pfeffer, Michael Doukas, and Christina Neal, 2011, Deep magmatic degassing versus scrubbing: Elevated CO2 emissions and C/S in the lead-up to the 2009 eruption of Redoubt Volcano, Alaska: Geochem. Geophys. Geosyst., 13, doi:10.1029/2011GC003794, 201.

Neal, Christina A.; Murray, Thomas L.; Power, John A.; Adleman, Jennifer N.; Whitmore, Paul M.; Osiensky, Jeffery M., 2010. Hazard Information Management, Interagency Coordination, and Impacts of the 2005-2006 Eruption of Augustine Volcano. U.S. Geological Survey Professional Paper 1769-28, 23 p.; p. 645-66. [Link]

Adleman, Jennifer N.; Cameron, Cheryl E.; Snedigar, Seth F.; Neal, Christina A.; Wallace, Kristi L., 2010. Public Outreach and Communications of the Alaska Volcano Observatory during the 2005-2006 Eruption of Augustine Volcano. U.S. Geological Survey Professional Paper 1769-27, 14 p.; p. 631-64. [Link]

McGee, Kenneth A.; Doukas, Michael P.; McGimsey, Robert G.; Neal, Christina A.; Wessels, Rick L., 2010. Emission of SO2, CO2, and H2S from Augustine Volcano, 2002-2008. U.S. Geological Survey Professional Paper 1769-26, 19 p.; p. 609-627. [Link]

Wallace, Kristi L.; Neal, Christina A.; McGimsey, Robert G., 2010. Timing, distribution, and character of tephra fall from the 2005-2006 eruption of Augustine Volcano. U.S. Geological Survey Professional Paper 1769-9, p. 187-217; Chapter 9 text; Appendices. [Link]

Neal, Christina A.; Guffanti, Marianne C., 2010. Airborne Volcanic Ash - A Global Threat to Aviation. U.S. Geological Survey Fact Sheet 2010-3116, 6 p. [Link]

Scott, W.E., Nye, C.J., Waythomas, C.F., and Neal, C.A., 2010, August 2008 eruption of Kasatochi Volcano, Andreanof Islands, Alaska-Resetting an island landscape: Arctic, Antarctic, and Alpine Research, v. 42, no. 3, p. 250-259.

 

 

PAST PUBLICATIONS

Rhodes, J. M., Wenz, K., Neal, C. A., Sparks, J. W., and Lockwood, J. P., 1989, Geochemical evidence for invasion of Kilauea's plumbing system by Mauna Loa magma:  Nature, v. 337, n. 6204, p. 257-260. 

Wolfe, E.W., Neal, C.A., Banks, N.G., and Duggan, T.J., 1989, Geologic observations and chronology of eruptive events, ch. 1 of Wolfe, E.W., ed., The Pu'u O'o eruption of Kilauea Volcano, Hawaii, Episodes 1-20, Jan 3, 1983 through Jun 8, 1984: U.S.  Geological Survey Professional Paper 1463, p.1-97.

Neal, C.A., Duggan, T.J., Wolfe, E.W., and Brandt, E.L., 1989, Lava samples, temperatures, and compositions, ch. 2 of Wolfe, E.W., ed., The Pu'u O'o eruption of Kilauea Volcano, Hawaii, Episodes 1-20, Jan 3, 1983 through Jun 8, 1984:  U.S. Geological Survey Professional Paper 1463, p. 99-126.

Gardner, C.A., Neal, C.A., Waitt, R.B., and Janda, R. J., 1994, Proximal pyroclastic deposits from the 1989-90 eruption of Redoubt Volcano, AK: Stratigraphy, distribution, and physical characteristics, 47 p., 22 figs., Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research, v.  62, p. 213-250.

Neal, C.A., McGimsey, R.G., Gardner, C.A., Harbin, M.L., and Nye, C.J., 1995, Tephra-fall deposits from the 1992 eruptions of Crater Peak, Spurr volcano, Alaska:  Preliminary report on distribution, stratigraphy and composition, ch. 7 of T.E.C. Keith, editor, The 1992 Eruptions of Crater Peak Vent, Mount Spurr Volcano, Alaska: U.S. Geological Survey Bulletin 2139, p. 65-80.

Parfit, E.A., Wilson, L., and Neal, C.A., 1995, Factors influencing the height of Hawaiian lava fountains: Implications for the use of fountain height as an indicator of magma gas content: Bulletin of Volcanology, v. 57, p. 440-450.

Waythomas, C.F., Walder, J., McGimsey, R.G., Neal, C.A., 1996, A catastrophic flood caused by drainage of a caldera lake at Aniakchak volcano, Alaska and implications for volcanic hazards assessment:  Geological Society of America Bulletin, v. 108, n. 7, p. 861-871.

Waythomas, C.F., and Neal, C.A., 1999, Tsunami generation during the 3500 yr B.P. caldera-forming eruption of Aniakchak Volcano, Alaska: Bulletin of Volcanology, v. 60, n. 2, p. 110-124. 

Gardner, C.A., Cashman, K.V., Neal, C.A., 1999, Tephra-fall deposits from the 1992 eruptions of Crater Peak, Alaska: implications of clast textures for eruptive processes: Bulletin of Volcanology, v. 59, n. 8, p. 537-555.

Neal, C.A., McGimsey, R.G., Waythomas, C.F., Miller, T.P., Riehle, J.R., 2001, Preliminary Volcanic Hazards of Aniakchak Volcano, Alaska, USGS Open File Report 00-519, one map sheet with text.

Kirianov, Vladimir Yu., Neal, Christina A., Gordeev, Evgenii I., and Miller, Thomas P., 2002, The Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team:  USGS Fact Sheet 064-02 (English and Russian; http://geopubs.wr.usgs.gov/fact-sheet/fs064-02/).

Neal, Christina A., McGimsey, Robert G., and Girina, O., 2005, 2002 volcanic activity in Alaska and Kamchatka: Summary of events and response of the Alaska Volcano Observatory: U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 2004-1058, 51 p.

Neal, C.A., and Lockwood, J.P., 2003, Geologic Map of the Summit area of Kilauea Volcano, one map sheet and 63 ms pages of text and tables, U.S. Geological Survey Map I-2759.

Begét, J.E., Larsen, J.F., Neal, C.A., Nye, C.J., and Schaefer, J.R., 2005, Preliminary volcano-hazard assessment for Okmok Volcano, Umnak Island, Alaska, Alaska Division of Geological & Geophysical Surveys Report of Investigations RI2004-3, 32 p., 1 sheet, scale 1:150,000.  

Neal, Christina A., McGimsey, Robert G., and Melnikov, D., 2005, 2004 volcanic activity in Alaska and Kamchatka: Summary of events and response of the Alaska Volcano Observatory: U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report, 67 p.

Coombs, Michelle L., Neal, Christina A., Wessels, Rick L., and McGimsey, Robert G., 2006, Geothermal Disruption of Summit Glaciers at Mount Spurr Volcano, 2004-6: An Unusual Manifestation of Volcanic Unrest, in Haeussler, Peter J., and Galloway, John P., (eds.), Studies by the U.S. Geological Survey in Alaska, 2005:  U.S. Geological Survey Professional Paper 1732-B, 33 p. [http://pubs.usgs.gov/pp/pp1732/pp1732b/].  

Larsen, J.F., Neal, C.A., Schaefer, J.R., Beget, J.E., and Nye, C.J., 2007, Late Pleistocene and Holocene caldera-forming eruptions of Okmok Caldera, Aleutian Islands, Alaska: in Eichelberger, John, Gordeev, Evgenii, Kasahara, Minoru, Izbekov, Pavel, and Lees, Jonathan (eds.) AGU Geophysical Monograph, Volcanism and Subduction: The Kamchatka Region, p. 343-364.

McGee, K.A., Doukas, M.P., McGimsey, R.G., Neal, C.A., and Wessels, R.L., 2008, Atmospheric contribution of gas emissions from Augustine volcano, Alaska during the 2006 eruption: Geophysical Research Letters, v. 35, L03306, doi: 10.1029/2007GL032301, 5 p.

Neal, Christina, Rybin, Alexander, Chibisova, Marina, and Miller, Edward, 2008, Active volcanoes of the Kurile Islands: A reference guide for aviation users:  U.S. Geological Survey Open File Report 2008-1162, 10 p.

Zimmerman, C.E., Neal, C.A., and Haeussler, P.J., 2008, Natural hazards, fish habitat, and fishing communities in Alaska: American Fisheries Society Symposium, v. 64, p. 375-388.  

Neal, Christina A., McGimsey, Robert G., Dixon, Jim, Manevich, Alexander, and Rybin, Alexander, 2008, 2006 volcanic activity in Alaska, Kamchatka, and the Kurile Islands: Summary of events and response of the Alaska Volcano Observatory:  U.S. Geological Survey Scientific Investigations Report 2008-5214, 114 p.

Driedger, C.L., Neal, C.A., Knappenberger, T.H., Needham, D.H., Harper, R.B., and Steele, W.P., 2008, Hazard information management during the autumn 2004 reawakening of Mount St. Helens volcano, Washington, chap. 24 in Sherrod, D.R., Scott, W.E., and Stauffer, P.H. eds, 2008, A volcano rekindled: the renewed eruption of Mount St. Helens, 2004-2006: U.S. Geological Survey Professional Paper 1750, chapter 24, p. 505-522.

Larsen, J.L., Neal, C.A., Webley, P., Freymueller, J., Haney, M., McNutt, S. Schneider, D., Prejean, S., Schaefer, J., and Wessels, R., 2009, Eruption of Alaska Volcano Breaks Historic Pattern: EOS v. 90, n. 20, p. 173-174.

Neal, Christina, Girina, Olga, Senyukov, Sergey, Rybin, Alexander, Osiensky, Jeffrey, Izbekov, Pavel, and Ferguson, Gail, 2009, Russian eruption warning systems for aviation: Natural Hazards, v. 50, 18 p., doi:10.1007/s11069-009-9347-6.