Unified Interior Regions


States L2 Landing Page Tabs

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August 10, 2002

Close-up of lava falls and steam cloud

Close-up of lava falls and steam cloud generated by lava entering water.

August 9, 2002

Lava dropping into the sea

Telephoto of lava dropping into the sea.

August 9, 2002

Lava falls into sea from western two entries at Highcastle

Lava falls into sea from western two entries at Highcastle. Entry started within past several hours. Listen to the "plop, plop" sounds as lava drips hit water.

July 21, 2002

Lava spilling over the lip of Wilipe`a sea cliff

Close view of lava spilling over the lip of Wilipe`a sea cliff.

July 21, 2002

Wave crashing over lava

Close view of wave crashing over lava in the surf zone.

July 21, 2002

Lava spills over Wilipe`a sea cliff

Lava spills over Wilipe`a sea cliff and across boulders into the sea.

July 19, 2002

Lava cascades down sea cliff

Lava cascades down sea cliff on July 19, 2002, 3.5 hours after Mother's Day flow reached to the sea.

February 23, 2002

A`a lava flow on 23 February


A`a lava flow on 23 February

    A channelized flow of lava forming a tube
    August 6, 1998

    channelized lava flow forming tube

    August 6, 1998 Two weeks later, the same channelized flow has formed a tube. A series of skylights in the roof of the tube forms a chain of orange beads on Pulama pali.

    channelized lava flow
    July 23, 1998

    Channelized lava flow

    July 23 A channelized lava flow resulting from a July 19 breakout courses down Pulama pali. By the time this picture was taken, four days after the initial breakout, the channel was partially roofed over--the first stage of tube formation

    Lava bubble burst explosion on active lava delta, Kīlauea Volcano, ...
    March 9, 1994

    Lava bubble burst explosion on active lava delta, Kīlauea, Hawai‘i

    Two bubble bursts explode simultaneously as a consequence seawater mixing with lava in a lava tube beneath surface of a lava delta. Because of the confined conditions in the lava tube, explosive pressures build up as water, heated by contact with molten lava, expands instantly to steam. The explosive energy of the steam is sufficient to blast a hole through the top of the

    Black and white graphic showing gray shaded areas for the areas of lava flows.
    November 8, 1991

    Map showing the location of lava flows from Puʻu ʻŌʻō

    Map shows the location of lava flows from Puʻu ʻŌʻō (unshaded), and Kūpaianaha (dark shaded), and Friday's fissure eruption (light shading) on Kīlauea's East Rift Zone. The inset shows the area of the enlarged flow field map and the locations and magnitudes of all felt earthquakes for the past week.

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    June 25, 1998

    Discussions of volcanic air pollution from Kīlauea frequently start out with a conversation about the large amount of sulfur dioxide gas (SO2) that bubbles out of the volcano and is converted in air to the tiny acidic sulfate particles that form vog (volcanic smog). 

    June 11, 1998

    Four of us HVO lava junkies had the rare opportunity to witness a partial bench collapse on Monday evening, June 8. The collapse began at 7:40 p.m. when a slab of incandescent lava fell outward from the bench edge into the ocean. The hot rock was fragmented by steam explosions as it hit the sea water, and the steam cloud became abruptly darker as the rock fragments were blasted upward.

    June 5, 1998

    Lava Continues to Erupt from Pu`u `O`o and Flow Into the Sea

    June 4, 1998

    Billowing clouds of steam rising from two discrete locations along the Kamokuna-Waha`ula coastline are often the only reminders we have of Kīlauea Volcano's near-constant effusion of lava into the sea.

    May 28, 1998

    The gravitational attraction of the Sun and the Moon produce the familiar ocean tides and the less familiar earth tides. Why are volcanologists interested in earth tides? Earth tides are cyclical, small, and slow ground movements that we use to calibrate and test sensitive volcano deformation- monitoring instruments. They might also trigger volcanic events.

    May 21, 1998

    Precisely 74 years ago today, the final chapter of one of Kīlauea's most alarming displays of volcanic power came to a close. Halema`uma`u, the fire pit nestled in Kīlauea's summit caldera, ended a 10-day-long outburst of violent steam explosions on May 24, 1924.

    May 14, 1998

    The story is told of how Maui snared the sun, holding it hostage atop Haleakalā until he slowed its passage across the sky. One result of this slow burn is a barren, rocky landscape devoid of soil or vegetation. Geologically speaking, the devastation resulted as numerous cinder cones and fissures erupted lava that flowed across the crater floor. How young are these flows?

    May 7, 1998

    The announcement last week that astronomers at Keck Observatory had looked back 12.3 billion years in time was astounding. When you think about it, though, it is pretty amazing that we can determine the age of any natural event that took place before written records, whether it be 12.3 billion years or a few hundred. How is this done?

    April 30, 1998

    As April draws to a close, so ends Tsunami Awareness Month in the State of Hawai`i. Tsunami Awareness Month featured programs and events coordinated among a number of government and private-sector organizations in order to increase awareness and understanding of the hazards posed by tsunamis.

    April 23, 1998

    The eruption of 1942 was noteworthy for several reasons. (1) It was declared a secret so the press was not allowed to publicize the event. (2) This was the second time lava diversion was tried on an eruption of Mauna Loa. (3) The volcanologists were able to predict the timing and place of the eruption.

    April 17, 1998

    Surges Interspersed Among Steady-state Activity

    April 16, 1998

    Govenor Ben Cayetano's proclamation of April as "Tsunami Awareness Month" in Hawai`i is a timely one, for a generation of residents has grown up oblivious of the destructive force of these waves.