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A guide to creating an effective big data management framework

Many agencies and organizations, such as the U.S. Geological Survey, handle massive geospatial datasets and their auxiliary data and are thus faced with challenges in storing data and ingesting it, transferring it between internal programs, and egressing it to external entities. As a result, these agencies and organizations may inadvertently devote unnecessary time and money to convey data without
Samantha Arundel, Kevin G McKeehan, Bryan B Campbell, Andrew N. Bulen, Philip T. Thiem

Historical maps inform landform cognition in machine learning

No abstract available.
Samantha Arundel, Sinha Gaurav, Wenwen Li, David P. Martin, Kevin G McKeehan, Philip T. Thiem

Geomorphometric analysis of the Summit and Ridge classes of the Geographic Names Information System

This research aims to conduct a geosemantic comparison of landforms classified in the Summit and Ridge feature classes in the Geographic Names Information System (GNIS). The comparison is based on a 2D shape analysis of manually delineated polygons produced by USGS staff to correspond to 33,304 Summit and 8,006 Ridge features. Five shape measures were chosen for this specific geomorphometry-based
Sinha Gaurav, Samantha Arundel, Romim Somadder, David P. Martin, Kevin G McKeehan

GeoImageNet: A multi-source natural feature benchmark dataset for GeoAI and supervised machine learning

The field of GeoAI or Geospatial Artificial Intelligence has undergone rapid development since 2017. It has been widely applied to address environmental and social science problems, from understanding climate change to tracking the spread of infectious disease. A foundational task in advancing GeoAI research is the creation of open, benchmark datasets to train and evaluate the performance of GeoAI
Wenwen Li, Sizhe Wang, Samantha Arundel, Chia-Yu Hsu

Scaling-up deep learning predictions of hydrography from IfSAR data in Alaska

The United States National Hydrography Dataset (NHD) is a database of vector features representing the surface water features for the country. The NHD was originally compiled from hydrographic content on U.S. Geological Survey topographic maps but is being updated with higher quality feature representations through flow-routing techniques that derive hydrography from high-resolution elevation data
Larry Stanislawski, Ethan J. Shavers, Alexander Duffy, Philip T. Thiem, Nattapon Jaroenchai, Shaowen Wang, Zhe Jiang, Barry J. Kronenfeld, Barbara P. Buttenfield

A geospatial knowledge graph prototype for national topographic mapping

Knowledge graphs are a form of database representation and handling that show the potential to better meet the challenges of data interoperability, semi-automated information reasoning, and information retrieval. Geospatial knowledge graphs (GKG) have at their core specialized forms of applied ontology that provide coherent spatial context to a domain of information including non-spatial attribute
Dalia E. Varanka

GeoAI and the future of spatial analytics

This chapter discusses the challenges of traditional spatial analytical methods in their limited capacity to handle big and messy data, as well as mining unknown or latent patterns. It then introduces a new form of spatial analytics—geospatial artificial intelligence (GeoAI)—and describes the advantages of this new strategy in big data analytics and data-driven discovery. Finally, a convergent spa
Wenwen Li, Samantha Arundel

Deep learning detection and recognition of spot elevations on historic topographic maps

Some information contained in historical topographic maps has yet to be captured digitally, which limits the ability to automatically query such data. For example, U.S. Geological Survey’s historical topographic map collection (HTMC) displays millions of spot elevations at locations that were carefully chosen to best represent the terrain at the time. Although research has attempted to reproduce t
Samantha Arundel, Trenton P. Morgan, Philip T. Thiem

Weakly supervised spatial deep learning for Earth image segmentation based on imperfect polyline labels

In recent years, deep learning has achieved tremendous success in image segmentation for computer vision applications. The performance of these models heavily relies on the availability of large-scale high-quality training labels (e.g., PASCAL VOC 2012). Unfortunately, such large-scale high-quality training data are often unavailable in many real-world spatial or spatiotemporal problems in earth s
Zhe Jiang, Wenchong He, M. S. Kirby, Arpan Man Sainju, Shaowen Wang, Larry Stanislawski, Ethan J. Shavers, E. Lynn Usery

The evolution of geospatial reasoning, analytics, and modeling

The field of geospatial analytics and modeling has a long history coinciding with the physical and cultural evolution of humans. This history is analyzed relative to the four scientific paradigms: (1) empirical analysis through description, (2) theoretical explorations using models and generalizations, (3) simulating complex phenomena and (4) data exploration. Correlations among developments in ge
Samantha Arundel, Wenwen Li

Watersheds and drainage networks

This topic is an overview of basic concepts about how the distribution of water on the Earth, with specific regard to watersheds, stream and river networks, and waterbodies are represented by geographic data. The flowing and non-flowing bodies of water on the earth’s surface vary in extent largely due to seasonal and annual changes in climate and precipitation. Consequently, modeling the detailed
Larry Stanislawski, Ethan J. Shavers