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Documentation for the Skeletal Storage, Compaction, and Subsidence (CSUB) Package of MODFLOW 6

This report describes the skeletal storage, compaction and subsidence (CSUB) package of MODFLOW 6. The CSUB package simulates the vertical compaction of compressible sediments and land subsidence. The package simulates groundwater storage changes and elastic compaction in coarse-grained aquifer sediments. The CSUB package also simulates groundwater storage changes and elastic and inelastic compact
Joseph D. Hughes, Stanley A. Leake, Devin L. Galloway, Jeremy T. White

Detection and measurement of land-surface deformation, Pajaro Valley, Santa Cruz and Monterey counties, California, 2015–18

Land-surface deformation (subsidence) caused by groundwater withdrawal is identified as an undesirable result in the Pajaro Valley Water Management Agency’s Basin Management Plan and California’s Sustainable Groundwater Management Act. In Pajaro Valley, groundwater provides nearly 90 percent of the total water supply. To aid the development of sustainable groundwater management criteria, the U.S.
Justin T. Brandt, Marisa M. Earll, Michelle Sneed, Wesley R. Henson

Measuring and interpreting multilayer aquifer-system compactions for a sustainable groundwater-system development

Ever decreasing water resources and climate change have driven the increasing use of groundwater causing land subsidence in many countries. Geodetic sensors such as InSAR, GPS and leveling can detect surface deformation but cannot measure subsurface deformation. A single‐well, single‐depth extensometer can be used to measure subsurface deformation, but it cannot delineate the depths of major compa
Wei-Chia Hung, Cheinway Hwang, Michelle Sneed, Yi-An Chen, Chi-Hua Chu, Shao-Hung Lin

Characterization of groundwater recharge and flow in California's San Joaquin Valley from InSAR-observed surface deformation

Surface deformation in California's Central Valley (CV) has long been linked to changes in groundwater storage. Recent advances in remote sensing have enabled the mapping of CV deformation and associated changes in groundwater resources at increasingly higher spatiotemporal resolution. Here, we use interferometric synthetic aperture radar (InSAR) from the Sentinel‐1 missions, augmented by continuo
W.R. Neely, A.A. Borsa, J.A. Burney, M.C. Levy, F. Silverii, Michelle Sneed

Detection and measurement of land subsidence and uplift using Global Positioning System surveys and interferometric synthetic aperture radar, Coachella Valley, California, 2010–17

Groundwater has been a major source of agricultural, recreational, municipal, and domestic supply in the Coachella Valley of California since the early 1920s. Pumping of groundwater resulted in groundwater-level declines as large as 50 feet (ft) or 15 meters (m) by the late 1940s. Because of concerns that the declines could cause land subsidence, the Coachella Valley Water District (CVWD) and the
Michelle Sneed, Justin T. Brandt

Mitigating land subsidence in the Coachella Valley, California, USA: An emerging success story

Groundwater has been a major source of agricultural, municipal, and domestic water supply since the early 1920s in the Coachella Valley, California, USA. Land subsidence, resulting from aquifer-system compaction and groundwater-level declines, has been a concern of the Coachella Valley Water District (CVWD) since the mid-1990s. As a result, the CVWD has implemented several projects to address grou
Michelle Sneed, Justin T. Brandt

Detection and measurement of land subsidence and uplift using interferometric synthetic aperture radar, San Diego, California, USA, 2016–2018

Land subsidence associated with groundwater-level declines is stipulated as an “undesirable effect” in California’s Sustainable Groundwater Management Act (SGMA), and has been identified as a potential issue in San Diego, California, USA. The United States Geological Survey (USGS), the Sweetwater Authority, and the City of San Diego, undertook a cooperative study to better understand the hydromech
Justin T. Brandt, Michelle Sneed, Wesley R. Danskin

Evaluation of land subsidence and ground failures at Bicycle Basin, Fort Irwin National Training Center, California, 1992–2017

Groundwater has been pumped in the Bicycle Basin at Fort Irwin National Training Center since the 1960s, and the amount pumped has generally increased since the 1990s. After a large crack (approximately 0.5-kilometer long) formed at the surface of Bicycle Lake playa during 2005–06 in the area used as an aircraft runway, a monitoring study was initiated by the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation
Jill N. Densmore, Kevin M. Ellett, Michelle Sneed, Justin T. Brandt, James F. Howle, Andrew Y. Morita, Rodrigo Borela, Antonio Bobet, Drew C. Thayer

Land subsidence along the California Aqueduct in west-central San Joaquin Valley, California, 2003–10

Extensive groundwater withdrawal from the unconsolidated deposits in the San Joaquin Valley caused widespread aquifer-system compaction and resultant land subsidence from 1926 to 1970—locally exceeding 8.5 meters. The importation of surface water beginning in the early 1950s through the Delta-Mendota Canal and in the early 1970s through the California Aqueduct resulted in decreased groundwater pum
Michelle Sneed, Justin T. Brandt, Michael Solt

Subsidence of agricultural lands in the Sacramento‐San Joaquin Delta, California: Role of aqueous and gaseous carbon fluxes

To examine the causes of land subsidence on marshes drained for agriculture, carbon fluxes and changes in land‐surface elevation were determined on three islands in the Sacramento‐San Joaquin Delta, California. Over the time period of March 1990 to May 1992, gaseous CO2 fluxes were determined approximately monthly using closed chambers, and dissolved carbon fluxes were determined from the dissolve
Steven J. Deverel, Stuart Rojstaczer